The Voice of Refugees (NAM, 2006)

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The Voice of Refugees (NAM, 2006)

The Voice of Refugees (NAM, 2006)

Ian Macllelan, in “Kakuma Refugee Camp Free Press,” writes, “In Osire Refugee Camp, Namibia, The Voice of Refugees was a handwritten newspaper that was snuck out of the camp and then spread around to shed light on what happens there. The Namibian Government and UNHCR shut down the venture before long.”

http://maclellanimages.com/blog1/2009/08/29/kakuma-refugee-camp-free-press/

“If a free press spreads among the hundreds of camps in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and appears on the World Wide Web, indeed a feedback mechanism will have been established. We know of only one other newspaper, TheVoice of Refugees, produced in Osiri Camp in Namibia, but it is not using modern information technology.”

http://kanere.org/2009/01/31/speaking-for-refugees-or-refugees-speaking-for-themselves/#more-256

Tuli Times (ZIM, 1891)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Fort Tuli, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia); “established on July 1st, 1890, by the Pioneer Column itself and by ‘A’ Troop of the British South Africa Company’s Police. This fort was first named Fort Selous, after the hunter, explorer and then guide to the Column. The hill on which the fort was built stands less than a mile south of the Shashi River in a hollow basin surrounded by higher hills—its siting was therefore frequently criticised for it was vulnerable to long-range guns and even rifles, a necessary consideration with regard to any threat from the Transvaal Republic”  (from Our Rhodesian Heritage).

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: Circa July, 1891

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher: Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to Rhodesiana (Vol. 12, September 1965 and republished on the Our Rhodesian Heritage website), from 1890 to 1893 the fort at Tuli was the main entry to Rhodesia and a small town rapidly grew up at the foot of the fort. It was the head of the telegraph, and here the first hospital in Rhodesia was started by Mother Patrick and her Dominican Sisters on April 1st, 1891. By July, 1891, Tuli even boasted its own newspaper, the Tuli Times. Rhodes reached Tuli in October, 1890, on his way to Mashonaland but the rains ended his journey there. Lord Randolph Churchill, Sir Frederick Carrington, Jameson and Beit were all entertained in the fort in July, 1891, while the large numbers of wagons and new immigrants, streaming north, had to replenish their supplies at Tuli and provided the few stores and the British South Africa Company’s Commissariat Officer with exorbitant profits. In 1893 Tuli was the base from which the Southern Column marched on Bulawayo but thereafter it declined for the Tati-Mangwe road now provided a more direct route to Bulawayo and then on to Salisbury.

Vann and VanArsdel cite the Tuli Times as handwritten and cyclostyled.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Jerry Don Vann, Rosemary T. VanArsdel, Periodicals of Queen Victoria’s Empire: An Exploration (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. 291; Press Reference-Zimbabwe; Louis W. Bolze, “The Book Publishing Scene in Zimbabwe,” The African Book Publishing Record, 6:3-4 (1980), 229–236

Link:  Our Rhodesian Heritage

Locations:  None

The Nugget (ZIM, 1890)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Fort Victoria, Mashonaland, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia)

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: November 11, 1890

Size and Format: In manuscript; motto: “Root hog or bust”

Editor/Publisher: H.R. Vennell

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to the British South Africa Company Historical Catalogue and Souvenir of Rhodesia, Empire Exhibition, 1936-1937,

   “273. First Newspaper, Mashonaland. - The Nugget, with the motto Root hog or bust, produced in manuscript at Fort Victoria, 11th November, 1890 (two months after the occupation of Mashonaland). The Editor says frankly that his principal object was to be the first in the field of journalism in the country. Printed and published by H. R. Vennell at the Nugget Publishing Company’s works, Fort Victoria, Mashonaland. No price is mentioned.

- Government Archives, Salisbury”

Information Sources: 

Bibliography:  British South Africa Company Historical Catalogue and Souvenir of Rhodesia, Empire Exhibition, 1936-1937 (1937); Jerry Don Vann, Rosemary T. VanArsdel, Periodicals of Queen Victoria’s Empire: An Exploration (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. 290; Press Reference-Zimbabwe; Louis W. Bolze, “The Book Publishing Scene in Zimbabwe,” The African Book Publishing Record, 6:3-4 (1980), 229–236

Locations:  None

Mashonaland and Zambesian Times (ZIM, 1891-1892)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Salisbury, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia)

Frequency: Weekly for 62 weeks

Volume and Issue Data: June 1891; weekly circulation: 180 copies

Size and Format: Pen and ink and then replicated by “cyclostyle” or early stenograph “for the Argus company”

Editor/Publisher: William Ernest Fairbridge

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to several sources, the Mashonaland and Zambesian Times, a hand-written paper described by one journalist as a “crude but readable cyclostyled sheet,” was published for 62 weeks from June 1891 into 1892. On October 20, 1892, The Rhodesia Herald replaced the Mashonaland and Zambesian Times as the country’s major daily newspaper. That paper, since renamed The Herald , survives today as Zimbabwe’s oldest and largest circulation daily newspaper.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Jerry Don Vann, Rosemary T. VanArsdel, Periodicals of Queen Victoria’s Empire: An Exploration (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. 290; Press Reference-Zimbabwe; Louis W. Bolze, “The Book Publishing Scene in Zimbabwe,” The African Book Publishing Record, 6:3-4 (1980), 229–236

Locations:  None

Jong Transvaal [Afrikaans: Young Transvaal] (RSA, 1901)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: South Africa

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: November 1901 (during Anglo-Boer War)

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  J. Mariewe

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

What follows are selections, roughly translated, from Paul Zietsman’s May 2002 article in Die Berger, “Seldsame Boerekoerant in Amsterdamse argief gevind,” describing the Jong Transvaal or Young Transvaal:

When I was recently in the South African Nederlandsch Vereeniging, on the Keizersgracht, Amsterdam, doing research, I found files on the rare first edition of a youth paper from among the Western Transvaal commandos of the Anglo-Boer War on the Transvaal. This edition appeared in November 1901.

The newspaper, hand-written, copied and distributed an edition of twenty, but the editors, the readers asked for the widest possible circulation and officers called on it to be read among the Boer commandos.

The editor was the Dutchman J. Mariewe, but between the lines it appears that Young Transvaal was a team effort.

The newspaper reflects the public mind of the people fighting in the Western Transvaal border zone of  Gen. Koos de la Rey’s battle field at this time of war. It reveals what life was like for people in the remote region, who also had access to  British newspapers like The Times, including the larger events and repercussions at the height of the Anglo-Boer War.

The inspiration that fueled the bitter rivalry radiates from every page of Young Transvaal. “True to death” was the newspaper’s motto.

The headquarters “The level field” and “Abonnementprijis (subscription): nil!” Shows a fine sense of humor. An “advertisement” with the same tongue in cheek look sought “typesetters,” “printers” and administrative clerks at fabulous salaries!

“To our fellow citizens” was the first introductory article which explained the paper’s editorial policies, including:  “In summary form wishes to all facts that come to our knowledge, on, taking aim at truth:”

And the name? “We gave this leaflet Young Transvaal this name because we were being prophetic.”

“It seems to us that this war is rejuvenating the Republic, so it appeared we are entering a new life, free from all diseases and germs that interfere with a healthy and vigorous life.”  The editors added that this “rejuvenating” of the Afrikaner life actually stretched beyond Transvaal .

In a later report, an article expanded on the Young Transvaal character. The young men were known before the war as progressives, whom the conservatives  (or Kruger Men) branded traitors, because they wound sites in the body is shown it is now their real leaders.

“Who are we men?” asked the Young Transvaal. “Probably are still a few of the old school among us, but for the rest we can show to a whole new staff officers, men who earlier in the background stood. And Louis Botha Koos de la Rey was the most prominent of the new officers and leaders of the anti-war Kruger men.”

“With them, a new time has come,” said Young Transvaal. “Let us all follow them united so that we can do great things.”

What’s the public outrage made above, but they also found laughable was Kitchener’s verbanningsdreigement. The editors wrote under the headline “Bannishment” (sic). “The rain of the English side almost as much as proclamations bombs.”

“Especially the last papierbom attract much attention.”

This deal on Kitchener’s proclamation of August 7, 1901 that the Boer officers who do not surrender 15 September, exiled and their property would be confiscated.

Young Transvaal refers to the excellent manner in which “our” leaders answered the proclamation and the unfavorable review of the European press. “In Amsterdam, a large meeting that took place in strong language against the proclamation is protested.”

Young Transvaal emphasized that the Transvaal proclamation contrary to the “General” Law and editors in any event in the history of people not familiar with “the defeated party punished with exile because his independence to the limit defense.”

Besides, the farmers have not yet been defeated. “Well, the enemy occupied the main towns, but the country is our lord and master. “The Republican government is still functioning and acting magistrates to maintain law and order in the Transvaal districts.”

“And because we each foot of the heritage of our fathers defended; because we remain faithful to the oath and duty, because we do not want to bend before the gods of gold, because we died on the battlefield over slawejuk we therefore prefer to ever the patriotic soil banned?”

In another reported Transvaal Young writes that it appears General (Lord) Methuen him on his journeys through the western Transvaal “primarily aims to vulnerable women and children to capture and destroy food supplies.”

“Why he started we offered him, refused?” Wonder the newspaper. “Was it for fear of possible heavy losses of material, dead and wounded, so that in the report to the Department of War would not only show that a small number of people in the field, but an organized citizens Strydmag the cause of the fatherland faithful?”

Young Transvaal was not completely spot on the Western Transvaal’s battle skills, as would soon be evident from Gen. Koos de la Rey’s spectacular victory over Methuen in Tweebosch between Sannieshof and De la Reyville on March 27, 1902, in which the wounded Methuen the dubious distinction bestowed that he was the only British general was during the war in Boer hands case it.

Young Transvaal underline the unreliable statistics as far as British casualties on the Boer side. According to a British newspaper that the British abandoned camp was found, the number of Boers in the Battle of Renosterfontein killed, more than doubled and the optimum is the allegation that General. Lemmer and sergeant under Joubert fell. Lemmer was wounded, but already back in the field and in the Marico Commando was nobody with the name sergeant Joubert not.

Under the headline “Domestic,” the newspaper reported that women from the concentration “refugee camp” at Mafeking escaped and reported very many deaths, especially among children. “We desire that a thorough investigation be undertaken.”

Thanks to Emily Hophouse’s publication in Britain of the cruel inhumanity of the concentration camps were already at that time such an investigation in progress by the Ladies Committee of which Britain sent out, although the superior high class British ladies were anything but objective. One of the most revered women wanted to know why the Boer women complained that their beds are not in the camps had not, because before the war, the Boers would not sleep on beds.

A story that quite upset the Young Transvaal  was that [British] Lord Kitchener complained to the [Boer] Commandant-General (Louis Botha) that people in the Battle of Vlakfontein southwest of Lichtenburg on 28 May 1901 and “wounded” hand suppers shot. Kitchener also claimed that “slightly wounded civilians were crawling around on the battlefield on all fours looking for wounded British to capture.”

Young Transvaal reported that the military authorities on the Boer side strictly investigated the accusation and  showed from various affidavits that Kitchener’s accusations were based on a misunderstanding.

The Commandant General, however, ordered that any citizen who committed criminal trespass immediately appear before a court martial.

Finally, Young Transvaal contains also a tongue-in-cheek ad that is actually an ironic commentary on the host’s diet is hunger. It reads: “The undersigned has the honor of the revered public in the ravines to notify its valley in Moepelkloof a restaurant opened. The following dishes were always on hand:

Boiled whole maize,  Heroic corn, Spy meal,  Potatoes imported from Mud River, Pudding a la Methuen, Dough boy-storm rider dumplings, Wheat Coffee currency, using black color and bitter taste.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography: Paul Zietsman, “Seldsame Boerekoerant in Amsterdamse argief gevind,” Die Burger (May 4, 2002); South Africa’s Yesterdays (Reader’s Digest Association South Africa, 1981), p. 2o.

Locations:  South African Nederlandsch Vereeniging, Keizersgracht, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The Gold Coast Gazette & Commercial Intelligencer (GHA, 1822-1825)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Ghana, West Africa

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: April 21, 1822-1825

Size and Format: “handwritten;” semi-official organ of the colonial government

Editor/Publisher: Sir Charles MacCarthy, governor of the British Gold Coast settlements

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to Jennifer Hasty’s history of the press in Ghana,

The first newspaper, The Gold Coast Gazette and Commercial Intelligencer, was published from 1822-25 by Sir Charles MacCarthy, governor of the British Gold Coast settlements. As a semi-official organ of the colonial government, the central goal of this Cape Coast newspaper was to provide information to European merchants and civil servants in the colony. Recognizing the growing number of mission-educated Africans in the Gold Coast, the paper also aimed at promoting literacy, encouraging rural development, and quelling the political aspirations of this class of native elites by securing their loyalty and conformity with the colonial system.

The appropriation of print media by local African elites began in mid-century with the publication of The Accra Herald by Charles Bannerman, son of a British lieutenant governor and a princess from the Asante royal family. Handwritten like MacCarthy’s former colonial paper, The Accra Herald was circulated to some 300 subscribers, two-thirds of them African. Enduring for 16 years, the success of Bannerman’s paper stimulated a proliferation of African-owned newspapers in the late nineteenth century . . . (emphasis added)

Governor MacCarthy was later killed in the First Ashanti war. His death and the claim that the victorious natives used his skull as a drinking cup did nothing to improve relations between the British and the coastal tribes. At least two other Ashanti Wars were fought in the 19th century.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  John D. Chick, “The Asanti Times: A Footnote in Ghanaian Press History,” African Affairs, 76:302 (1977), p. 80 (fn.3); “The Story of Africa: African History from the Dawn of Time,” BBC World Service, accessed August 18, 2011; Jennifer Hasty, “Ghana,” World Press Encyclopedia (2003);  JenniferHasty,  Big Language and Brown Envelopes: The Press and Political Culture in Ghana,  Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1999

Locations:  Unknown

Accra Herald (GHA, 1858-1874)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Accra, Ghana, West Africa

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: Published from 1858, for 16 years; “circulated among 300 subscribers, two-thirds of them African”

Size and Format: “handwritten”

Editor/Publisher: Charles Bannerman, “first African to publish a newspaper in West Africa” (according to Akufo-Addo)

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to John Chick, the paper appeared in 1857, the year of Ghanaian independence. However, according to the BBC, the year was 1858:

The first African produced paper in West Africa was Charles Bannerman’s Accra Herald, produced in 1858 in the Gold Coast (modern Ghana).

Akufo-Addo also support the 1858 date. He claims that Charles Bannerman was  the first African to publish a newspaper in West Africa.

According to Hasty,

The first newspaper, The Gold Coast Gazette and Commercial Intelligencer, was published from 1822-25 by Sir Charles MacCarthy, governor of the British Gold Coast settlements. As a semi-official organ of the colonial government, the central goal of this Cape Coast newspaper was to provide information to European merchants and civil servants in the colony. Recognizing the growing number of mission-educated Africans in the Gold Coast, the paper also aimed at promoting literacy, encouraging rural development, and quelling the political aspirations of this class of native elites by securing their loyalty and conformity with the colonial system.

The appropriation of print media by local African elites began in mid-century with the publication of The Accra Herald by Charles Bannerman, son of a British lieutenant governor and a princess from the Asante royal family. Handwritten like MacCarthy’s former colonial paper, The Accra Herald was circulated to some 300 subscribers, two-thirds of them African. Enduring for 16 years, the success of Bannerman’s paper stimulated a proliferation of African-owned newspapers in the late nineteenth century . . . (emphasis added)

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  John D. Chick, “The Asanti Times: A Footnote in Ghanaian Press History,” African Affairs, 76:302 (1977), p. 80 (fn.3); “The Story of Africa: African History from the Dawn of Time,” BBC World Service, accessed August 18, 2011; Nano Akufo-Addo, “Welcome Back! A Goodwill Message,” The Statesman, republished on the Modern Ghana website, March 21, 2011; Jennifer Hasty, “Ghana,” World Press Encyclopedia (2003);  JenniferHasty,  Big Language and Brown Envelopes: The Press and Political Culture in Ghana,  Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 1999

Locations:  Unknown

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