The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager (MI, 1827)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan

Frequency:  Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun, or Literary Voyager (No. 4, Jan. 12, 1827-No. 11, ? 1827); The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun and Literary Voyager (No. 12, March 2, 1827); The Literary Voyager (No. 13, March 10, 1827-No. 14, April 11, 1827); The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager (No. 16, April 28, 1827)

Size and Format:  Averaged 23 pages per issue

Editor/Publisher:  Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1826-1827)

Title Changes and Continuation:  The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun, or Literary Voyager (1827); The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun and Literary Voyager (1827); The Literary Voyager (1827); The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager (1827); also cited as Schoolcraft’s First Literary Magazine

General Description and Notes:

According to Littlefield and Parins, The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager was a manuscript magazine devoted to the life, history, customs, tribal news of the Ojibwa Indians, as well as poetry, essays and information on western living and Mexican civilization.  This was the second of editor Schoolcraft’s three handwritten publications, the first being a literary magazine published from 1809 to 1818, and the third being The Bow and Arrow (1833).  The magazine circulated in Sault Ste. Marie, Detroit, New York and elsewhere.

Articles and other content were usually written by Schoolcraft and his wife.  Objiwa lore content was supplied by Mrs. Schoolcraft’s brother George Johnston and their mother, the daughter of Waub Ojeeg, a Ojibwa leader.  The reports published in The Muzzinyegun provided a basis for Schoolcraft’s later ethnological studies printed in Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Conditions, and Prospects of the indian Tribes of the United States (6 vols.; Philadelphia:  Lippincott, Grambo and Co., 1851-1857).

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Vernon Kinietz, “Schoolcraft’s Manuscript Magazines,”  Bibliographical Society of America Papers, 35 (April-June, 1941), 151-154; Philip P. Mason, “Introduction” and Notes, The Literary Voyager or Muzzeniegun (East Lansing:  Michigan State University Press, 1962); Philip P. Mason, ed., The Literary Voyager or Muzzeniegun (East Lansing:  Michigan State University Press, 1962); David F. Littlefield, Jr. and James W. Parins,  American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 (Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1984), 265-266

Locations:  DLC; Danky and Hady; Reprint:  Philip P. Mason, ed., The Literary Voyager or Muzzeniegun (East Lansing:  Michigan State University Press, 1962)

The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

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The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Chennai, India

Frequency:  Daily

Volume and Issue Data:  Published since 1927, circulation approx. 21,000

Size and Format:  Broadsheet folded to make four pages; Urdu language publication; handwritten, then printed

Editor/Publisher:  Editor-in-Chief Syed Arifullah (youngest son of former editor Syed Fazlulla)

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

According to Wired Magazine, “the fax machine on 76-year-old Editor-in-Chief Syed Fazlulla’s [died April 26, 2008] crowded desk is by far the most sophisticated technology in the room.”

“Fazlulla, who is deep into creating the next issue of the handcrafted The Musalman daily newspaper, frowns as he deciphers the handwriting and searches for a cover story. After some consideration, he passes the page to his brother who translates it into Urdu. He in turn sends the text to the back room where writers take calligraphy quills in hand and begin.

“Here in the shadow of the Wallajah Mosque, a team of six puts out this hand-penned paper. Four of them are katibs – writers dedicated to the ancient art of Urdu calligraphy. It takes three hours using a pen, ink and ruler to transform a sheet of paper into news and art.”

According to Iran Radio Islam, the paper, whose name means “The Muslim,”

is a broadsheet folded to make four pages. The front page has local and national news. Page two has international news and editorials. Page three contains Hadith, quotes from the Qur’an and (incongruously) sports. The last page has “everything”, says Arifullah, with a focus on local news. There are ads from local businesses, “exhibitions, circus, new products”, and even Aligarh Muslim University.

News comes in from part-time reporters in different cities, once by fax, now also email. “We are not able to afford” full-time Urdu reporters, the editor says, so the material often comes in English. Three translators turn it into Urdu. The katibs then write the copy out on paper with quills and ink, three hours per page, and paste all the items on a form. If a mistake is made or a news update arrives, the page is rewritten. The form is turned into a negative, which is used to make the plate for printing.

The Wired magazine reporter observed that the paper’s

“. . . office is a center for the South Indian Muslim community and hosts a stream of renowned poets, religious leaders and royalty who contribute to the pages, or just hang out, drink chai and recite their most recent works to the staff. The Musalman publishes Urdu poetry and messages on devotion to God and communal harmony daily.

The newspaper’s content is not exactly hard-hitting. It covers the basics of local politics and the writers translate stories from English papers into Urdu. Still, the paper is widely read and appreciated by Muslims in Tripplicane and Chennai where the paper has a circulation of 20,000.

While the Musalman is a Muslim newspaper, it is a hub of South Asian liberalism, employing both women and non-Muslims. Half the katibs are women and the chief reporter is Hindu. Staff members say that Indira Gandhi, former prime minister of India, once called the business the epitome of what modern India should be.

The Urdu language is, according to Wired, “similar to spoken Hindi, Urdu is a mixture of Arabic, Persian and local Indian languages. It originated in the army camps of Muslim rulers in Delhi and has been the language of poets and artists because its rich roots draw on so many traditions across various cultures.”

But when British colonizers swept across India importing printing presses and English, Urdu ceased to be the official court language. It was spoken primarily by the Muslim community, but katibs could still make a living because no Urdu typeface existed.

That changed in 1997 with the first widely circulated Urdu computer font. Nowadays, people learn to read and write Urdu mostly as a hobby.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Scott Carney, “A Handwritten Daily Paper in India Faces the Digital Future,” Wired (magazine), July 6, 2007; Iran Radio Islam, “The Musalman: The Last Hand Printed Newspaper in India,” IRIB World Service-English, May 26, 2011.

Locations:  Unknown (Chennai, India)

Mountain Echoes (CA, 1881-1882)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Santa Cruz, California

Volume and Issue Data:  No. 1, Dec.1881-No. 10, Nov. 1882

Size and Format:  28 cm.?

Editor/Publisher:  M.B. Smith, Summit Literary Society

Title Changes and Continuations:  None

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  CU-SC, CUZNdc: University of California, Santa Cruz, University Library, Special Collections (photocopy only)

Mount Idaho Radiator (ID, 1873)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Mount Idaho (Grangeville), Idaho

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Feb. 1873

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Kenneth L. Robison, “Idaho Territorial Newspapers,” unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Oregon, 1966

Locations:  None

Moscow Argus (ID, 1878-1879)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Moscow, Idaho (1878-1879)

Frequency:  Quarterly?

Volume and Issue Data:  At least one issue during the winter of 1878-1879

Size and Format:  Unknown?

Editor/Publisher:  R.H. Barton, G.P. Richardson and Dr. William Taylor (1878-1879)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

According to An Illustrated History of North Idaho, the Moscow Argus was the first paper in Latah County, Idaho. “It was published in the winter of 1878-79 by the Moscow Literary Society and its editors were R.H. Barton, George P. Richardson, and Dr. William Taylor. They had no printing press, so the paper was written out by hand and was read at regular weekly meetings of the society.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Bert Cross,”History of Moscow’s Newspapers,” in Moscow Centennial edition, Idahonian; Kenneth L. Robison, “Idaho Territorial Newspapers,” unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Oregon, 1966; An Illustrated History of North Idaho Containing Nez Perce, Idaho, Latah, Kootenai, and Shoshone Counties (Western Historical Publishing Co., 1903) p. 1219.

Locations:  None

The Morning Star (IL, 1858)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Greenfield, IL: Greenfield Seminary

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1858

Size and Format:  28 pages

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  Manuscripts (SC 529), Illinois State Historical Library, Old State Capitol, Springfield, IL

Moqui Mission Messenger (AZ, 1894-1895)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Keams Canyon, Arizona

Frequency:  Monthly

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan. 1894-Vol. 2, No. 4, April 1895

Size and Format:  One-column, two-page typed and mimeographed newsletter; after July, 1894:  four pages, two columns

Editor/Publisher:  Editor, Curtis P. Coe (1894-1895); anonymous editor (April 1894); Publisher, Moqui (Hopi) Reservation Faith Mission (before July, 1894), Otho F. Curtis, Chicago (after July, 1894)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

According to Littlefield and Parins, the Moqui Mission Messenger was devoted to supporting editor Coe’s mission activities among the Hopi, Navajo and Arapahoe Indians at the Moqui Reservation (est. 1883).  The audience was friends and supporters of Coe’s mission work.  In the first issue, Coe asked readers to send grass roots, seeds and other plant stock to assist agricultural development.  The paper also contained accounts of the editor’s experiences with the Indians of the reservation and descriptions of native customs, habits and religion.  News of others involved with the mission, inspirational items, statistics on Arizona weather, census data on Indians and reservation financial information completed the general content of the issues.  The March and April, 1895 issues contained information about Alaska where Coe was to assume in May the position of superintendent of the Wood Island, Alaska, orphanage operated by the Women’s American Baptist Home Mission Society of Boston.  The editor announced that the Messenger would be discontinued after April, but that subscribers would receive the mission society’s publication, The Echo thereafter.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (Washington, D.C.:  Government Publishing Office, 1910), 2:233; David F. Littlefield, Jr. and James W. Parins,  American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 (Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1984), 247-248

Locations:  DSI-BAE; ULS

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