The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager (MI, 1827)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan

Frequency:  Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun, or Literary Voyager (No. 4, Jan. 12, 1827-No. 11, ? 1827); The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun and Literary Voyager (No. 12, March 2, 1827); The Literary Voyager (No. 13, March 10, 1827-No. 14, April 11, 1827); The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager (No. 16, April 28, 1827)

Size and Format:  Averaged 23 pages per issue

Editor/Publisher:  Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1826-1827)

Title Changes and Continuation:  The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun, or Literary Voyager (1827); The Muz-ze-ni-e-gun and Literary Voyager (1827); The Literary Voyager (1827); The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager (1827); also cited as Schoolcraft’s First Literary Magazine

General Description and Notes:

According to Littlefield and Parins, The Muzzinyegun or Literary Voyager was a manuscript magazine devoted to the life, history, customs, tribal news of the Ojibwa Indians, as well as poetry, essays and information on western living and Mexican civilization.  This was the second of editor Schoolcraft’s three handwritten publications, the first being a literary magazine published from 1809 to 1818, and the third being The Bow and Arrow (1833).  The magazine circulated in Sault Ste. Marie, Detroit, New York and elsewhere.

Articles and other content were usually written by Schoolcraft and his wife.  Objiwa lore content was supplied by Mrs. Schoolcraft’s brother George Johnston and their mother, the daughter of Waub Ojeeg, a Ojibwa leader.  The reports published in The Muzzinyegun provided a basis for Schoolcraft’s later ethnological studies printed in Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Conditions, and Prospects of the indian Tribes of the United States (6 vols.; Philadelphia:  Lippincott, Grambo and Co., 1851-1857).

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Vernon Kinietz, “Schoolcraft’s Manuscript Magazines,”  Bibliographical Society of America Papers, 35 (April-June, 1941), 151-154; Philip P. Mason, “Introduction” and Notes, The Literary Voyager or Muzzeniegun (East Lansing:  Michigan State University Press, 1962); Philip P. Mason, ed., The Literary Voyager or Muzzeniegun (East Lansing:  Michigan State University Press, 1962); David F. Littlefield, Jr. and James W. Parins,  American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 (Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1984), 265-266

Locations:  DLC; Danky and Hady; Reprint:  Philip P. Mason, ed., The Literary Voyager or Muzzeniegun (East Lansing:  Michigan State University Press, 1962)

The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

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The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Chennai, India

Frequency:  Daily

Volume and Issue Data:  Published since 1927, circulation approx. 21,000

Size and Format:  Broadsheet folded to make four pages; Urdu language publication; handwritten, then printed

Editor/Publisher:  Editor-in-Chief Syed Arifullah (youngest son of former editor Syed Fazlulla)

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

According to Wired Magazine, “the fax machine on 76-year-old Editor-in-Chief Syed Fazlulla’s [died April 26, 2008] crowded desk is by far the most sophisticated technology in the room.”

“Fazlulla, who is deep into creating the next issue of the handcrafted The Musalman daily newspaper, frowns as he deciphers the handwriting and searches for a cover story. After some consideration, he passes the page to his brother who translates it into Urdu. He in turn sends the text to the back room where writers take calligraphy quills in hand and begin.

“Here in the shadow of the Wallajah Mosque, a team of six puts out this hand-penned paper. Four of them are katibs – writers dedicated to the ancient art of Urdu calligraphy. It takes three hours using a pen, ink and ruler to transform a sheet of paper into news and art.”

According to Iran Radio Islam, the paper, whose name means “The Muslim,”

is a broadsheet folded to make four pages. The front page has local and national news. Page two has international news and editorials. Page three contains Hadith, quotes from the Qur’an and (incongruously) sports. The last page has “everything”, says Arifullah, with a focus on local news. There are ads from local businesses, “exhibitions, circus, new products”, and even Aligarh Muslim University.

News comes in from part-time reporters in different cities, once by fax, now also email. “We are not able to afford” full-time Urdu reporters, the editor says, so the material often comes in English. Three translators turn it into Urdu. The katibs then write the copy out on paper with quills and ink, three hours per page, and paste all the items on a form. If a mistake is made or a news update arrives, the page is rewritten. The form is turned into a negative, which is used to make the plate for printing.

The Wired magazine reporter observed that the paper’s

“. . . office is a center for the South Indian Muslim community and hosts a stream of renowned poets, religious leaders and royalty who contribute to the pages, or just hang out, drink chai and recite their most recent works to the staff. The Musalman publishes Urdu poetry and messages on devotion to God and communal harmony daily.

The newspaper’s content is not exactly hard-hitting. It covers the basics of local politics and the writers translate stories from English papers into Urdu. Still, the paper is widely read and appreciated by Muslims in Tripplicane and Chennai where the paper has a circulation of 20,000.

While the Musalman is a Muslim newspaper, it is a hub of South Asian liberalism, employing both women and non-Muslims. Half the katibs are women and the chief reporter is Hindu. Staff members say that Indira Gandhi, former prime minister of India, once called the business the epitome of what modern India should be.

The Urdu language is, according to Wired, “similar to spoken Hindi, Urdu is a mixture of Arabic, Persian and local Indian languages. It originated in the army camps of Muslim rulers in Delhi and has been the language of poets and artists because its rich roots draw on so many traditions across various cultures.”

But when British colonizers swept across India importing printing presses and English, Urdu ceased to be the official court language. It was spoken primarily by the Muslim community, but katibs could still make a living because no Urdu typeface existed.

That changed in 1997 with the first widely circulated Urdu computer font. Nowadays, people learn to read and write Urdu mostly as a hobby.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Scott Carney, “A Handwritten Daily Paper in India Faces the Digital Future,” Wired (magazine), July 6, 2007; Iran Radio Islam, “The Musalman: The Last Hand Printed Newspaper in India,” IRIB World Service-English, May 26, 2011.

Locations:  Unknown (Chennai, India)

Mountain Echoes (CA, 1881-1882)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Santa Cruz, California

Volume and Issue Data:  No. 1, Dec.1881-No. 10, Nov. 1882

Size and Format:  28 cm.?

Editor/Publisher:  M.B. Smith, Summit Literary Society

Title Changes and Continuations:  None

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  CU-SC, CUZNdc: University of California, Santa Cruz, University Library, Special Collections (photocopy only)

Mount Idaho Radiator (ID, 1873)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Mount Idaho (Grangeville), Idaho

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Feb. 1873

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Kenneth L. Robison, “Idaho Territorial Newspapers,” unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Oregon, 1966

Locations:  None

Moscow Argus (ID, 1878-1879)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Moscow, Idaho (1878-1879)

Frequency:  Quarterly?

Volume and Issue Data:  At least one issue during the winter of 1878-1879

Size and Format:  Unknown?

Editor/Publisher:  R.H. Barton, G.P. Richardson and Dr. William Taylor (1878-1879)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

According to An Illustrated History of North Idaho, the Moscow Argus was the first paper in Latah County, Idaho. “It was published in the winter of 1878-79 by the Moscow Literary Society and its editors were R.H. Barton, George P. Richardson, and Dr. William Taylor. They had no printing press, so the paper was written out by hand and was read at regular weekly meetings of the society.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Bert Cross,”History of Moscow’s Newspapers,” in Moscow Centennial edition, Idahonian; Kenneth L. Robison, “Idaho Territorial Newspapers,” unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Oregon, 1966; An Illustrated History of North Idaho Containing Nez Perce, Idaho, Latah, Kootenai, and Shoshone Counties (Western Historical Publishing Co., 1903) p. 1219.

Locations:  None

The Morning Star (IL, 1858)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Greenfield, IL: Greenfield Seminary

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1858

Size and Format:  28 pages

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  Manuscripts (SC 529), Illinois State Historical Library, Old State Capitol, Springfield, IL

Moqui Mission Messenger (AZ, 1894-1895)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Keams Canyon, Arizona

Frequency:  Monthly

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan. 1894-Vol. 2, No. 4, April 1895

Size and Format:  One-column, two-page typed and mimeographed newsletter; after July, 1894:  four pages, two columns

Editor/Publisher:  Editor, Curtis P. Coe (1894-1895); anonymous editor (April 1894); Publisher, Moqui (Hopi) Reservation Faith Mission (before July, 1894), Otho F. Curtis, Chicago (after July, 1894)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

According to Littlefield and Parins, the Moqui Mission Messenger was devoted to supporting editor Coe’s mission activities among the Hopi, Navajo and Arapahoe Indians at the Moqui Reservation (est. 1883).  The audience was friends and supporters of Coe’s mission work.  In the first issue, Coe asked readers to send grass roots, seeds and other plant stock to assist agricultural development.  The paper also contained accounts of the editor’s experiences with the Indians of the reservation and descriptions of native customs, habits and religion.  News of others involved with the mission, inspirational items, statistics on Arizona weather, census data on Indians and reservation financial information completed the general content of the issues.  The March and April, 1895 issues contained information about Alaska where Coe was to assume in May the position of superintendent of the Wood Island, Alaska, orphanage operated by the Women’s American Baptist Home Mission Society of Boston.  The editor announced that the Messenger would be discontinued after April, but that subscribers would receive the mission society’s publication, The Echo thereafter.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (Washington, D.C.:  Government Publishing Office, 1910), 2:233; David F. Littlefield, Jr. and James W. Parins,  American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 (Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1984), 247-248

Locations:  DSI-BAE; ULS

The Monthly Meteor (MA, 1881)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Worcester, MA

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol 1. No.1  December 1881

Size and Format:  28 pages including wrappers

Editor/Publisher:  John Green Oliver

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

Found in a scrapbook kept by John Green Oliver of Worcester, MA from 1874-1882, newspapers of other members of the New England Amateur Journalists’s Association, along with other memorabilia of his press activities, “all in meticulous emulation of professional job printing and the fraternal culture thereof.”

The Monthly Meteor is printed by hectography with holograph touch-ups and is thus partially handwritten, and is certainly a hand-made facsimile of a manuscript original.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Rare Book Room, Smith College, William Allan Neilson Library, Northampton, MA

The Monthly Chronicle (MA, no date)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Worcester, MA

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Unknown

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher: Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA

Miner’s News (CA, 1859)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: North Bloomfield, California

Frequency:  Monthly (Only two issues known)

Volume and Issue Data:  ca. February and March, 1859

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  James Marriot (1859)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None (see the OWL)

General Description and Notes:

According to Kennedy, North Bloomfield, California, had no printed newspapers, but it did have two manuscript publications:  the Owl and the Miner’s News.  The appearance of the Miner’s News was announced in the Hydraulic Press:

THE MINER’S NEWS–This is the title of a new manuscript newspaper published at North Bloomfield by Jas. Marriot, and of which we have received the first number.  It presents quite a neat appearance, the head being ornamented by a drawing of an honest miner with this pick and shovel on his way to work.

The editor of the Hydraulic Press, B.P. Avery, then quoted a discussion of chronic grumblers from the Miner’s News, and said, “As our cotem. [sic] intends to devote his paper to the mining interest, we wish him success, and will gladly exchange.”

On March 12, 1859, the Hydraulic Press editor noted another issued of the Miner’s News, but the North Bloomfield paper did not appear in the columns of the press again.  Kennedy observes, “Whether both the Owl and the Miner’s News suspended publication shortly after they started, or Avery was tired of mentioning them cannot be determined” (p. 512).

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterP. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 25, 37, 512, 608)

Locations:  None located, but cited in Hydraulic Press,Feb. 19, 1859andMarch 12, 1859

The Miner’s Expose (CA, 1856)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Granite Hill, El Dorado County, California

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1856

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  “Mr. Baker”

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

The newspaper Alta California printed the following item in its Feb. 14, 1856 edition:

NEW PAPER–We learn that a paper entitled The Miner’s Expose, and edited by Mr. Baker, has lately been started at Granite Hill, El Dorado County.  We have not yet seen a copy.

This was the only reference to the Miner’s Expose Kennedy located in his research on northern California mining camp newspapers.  According to Kennedy, “one might guess, from the title, that it was a protest paper of some sort, but at best that is only a guess.  It probably was a manuscript paper and there is a possibility it was never published at all.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterP. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 26, 37, 532-33, 601

Locations:  None located, but cited in Alta California, Feb. 14, 1856

The Mill Valley News (CA, 1893)

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Mill Valley News (CA, 1893)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Mill Valley, California

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 1, April 6, 1893

Size and Format:  Four pages; 6 1/2 x 8 1/4; three columns

Editor/Publisher: Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

Front page contents include a “Poet’s Corner” (with poems by Kezia B. Simmes, and Elizabeth Stone), a short story on “True Love” by Madge Wilson; page two has news “Notes” which mention a new hotel being “nearly finished” and the Catholic Church, “it is hoped be dedicated on the first of May” and will “accommodate about 200 people,” an essay on “Rob White” by Chas. Fromley; page three is mostly “The Little Ones, A Fairy Tale” by Jessy Greot and short joke about Jonah and the Whale; and page four contains jokes, births, lists marriages and deaths, but leaves those blank, puzzles, and a “Letter Box” with two short letters and mention of thanks yous to seven individuals.

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Anne Kent California History Room, Marin County Free Library, CA (photocopy)

The Meteor (MA, 1868-1869)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Unknown

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1868-69 (no date on “the Herald”)

Size and Format:  Total about 80 pages

Editor/Publisher:  Hale family

Title Changes and Continuation: The Herald

General Description and Notes:

Children’s projects

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations:  In the Hale Family Papers,  Smith College, Sophia Smith Collection, Northampton, MA

Melbourne Advertiser (AUS, 1838)

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Melbourne Advertiser (AUS, 1838)

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Port Phillip, Melbourne, SE Australia

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  January 1, 1838, Vol. 1, Nos. 1-17 extant (minus No. 16); first 10 issues were handwritten

Size and Format:  Four pages,  two columns (see images on State Library of Victoria website)

Editor/Publisher:  John Pascoe Fawkner

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

Earliest paper in Southeast Australia

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Jerry Don Vann, Rosemary T. VanArsdel, Periodicals of Queen Victoria’s Empire: An Exploration (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. 23

Locations:  State Library of Victoria, Australia (images online)

Mechanics Journal (CT, 1888)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Collinsville, CT

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  No copies available, but there are 10 pages of reported correspondence.

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

No copies available.  But there are 10 pages of reporter correspondence that must indicate that the paper existed.

Information Sources:                 

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Reporter correspondence, Salmon Brook Historical Society, Granby, CT; Canton Historical Society in Collinsville, CT may have a copy of the paper

Masonian Times (MI, 1845)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Unknown

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1845

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Dacre, H.J.  (not sure if this name is the editor)

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:         

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Manuscript Holdings,  Bentley Historical Library, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

Mashonaland and Zambesian Times (ZIM, 1891-1892)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Salisbury, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia)

Frequency: Weekly for 62 weeks

Volume and Issue Data: June 1891; weekly circulation: 180 copies

Size and Format: Pen and ink and then replicated by “cyclostyle” or early stenograph “for the Argus company”

Editor/Publisher: William Ernest Fairbridge

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to several sources, the Mashonaland and Zambesian Times, a hand-written paper described by one journalist as a “crude but readable cyclostyled sheet,” was published for 62 weeks from June 1891 into 1892. On October 20, 1892, The Rhodesia Herald replaced the Mashonaland and Zambesian Times as the country’s major daily newspaper. That paper, since renamed The Herald , survives today as Zimbabwe’s oldest and largest circulation daily newspaper.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Jerry Don Vann, Rosemary T. VanArsdel, Periodicals of Queen Victoria’s Empire: An Exploration (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. 290; Press Reference-Zimbabwe; Louis W. Bolze, “The Book Publishing Scene in Zimbabwe,” The African Book Publishing Record, 6:3-4 (1980), 229–236

Locations:  None

A Manuscript Paper (UT, 1893)

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A Manuscript Paper (UT, 1893)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Hyrum, Utah

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 2, June 11, 1893

Size and Format:  Ledger (7 3/4 x 12+)

Editor/Publisher:  Clara Williams (Vol. 1, No. 2); “Written by the Y.M. & Y.L.M.I. Associations of Hyrum

Title Changes and Continuation:  See THE EDUCATOR, THE EVENINGSTAR, THE KNOWLEDGE SEEKER and YOUNG LADIES THOUGHTS; one of many papers published by the Young Men and Young Ladies Mutual Improvement Societies in Utah

General Description and Notes:

According to Alter, the Young Men’s and Young Ladies’ Mutual Improvement Associations of Hyrum published weekly literary journals largely in the interests and for the entertainment of their members during the late 1880s.  The publications carried news, religious items and weather reports.

“A Manuscript Paper” a jointly published by the young men and young ladies groups.  “The Knowledge Seeker” was published by the Young Men; “The Young Ladies Thoughts” and “The Evening Star” were published by the Young Ladies.  These papers appeared under various editors, since officers in these organizations changed hands regularly.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  J. Cecil Alter, Early Utah Journalism (Salt Lake City:  Utah State Historical Society, 1938), 90; Lorraine T. Washburn, “Culture in Dixie,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 29 (July 1961), 259-260; Mark A. Pendleton, “The Orderville United Order of Zion,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 7 (October 1939), 151

Locations:  John A. Israelson’s papers, Special Collections and Archives, Utah State University, Logan, UT

The Manti Herald and Sanpete Advertiser (UT, 1867)

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Manti Herald (UT, 1867 )

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Manti, Sanpete County, Utah

Frequency:  Weekly; bi-weekly; irregular

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No.1,Jan. 31, 1867-Vol.1, No. 15,May 18, 1867

Size and Format:  One page, legal size; three columns; large art masthead; pen and ink

Editor/Publisher:  F.C. Robinson, editor and publisher

Title Changes and Continuation:  Manti Herald (Jan. 31-Vol. 1, No. 5); Manti Herald and Sanpete Advertiser (Mar. 20-May 18, 1867)

Manti Herald (UT, 1867)

According to Alter, the Manti Herald and Sanpete Advertiser was all handwritten.  It carried display advertisements, local news and some telegraphic new briefs with a Salt Lake City date line.  Alter describes it as “a real newspaper in spirit and in fact, being the organ or propaganda of no one.”

The paper was issued to subscribers only.  Vol. 1, No. 2,Feb. 10, 1867 identifies editor Robinson as the Sanpete County Clerk.

In Number 6, March 20, 1867, the editor explained a publishing delay:

“To our subscribers:  We feel that an apology is due to our subscribers for the non-appearance of the Herald last week; and by way of explanation, may say that the ‘type’ we had previously used, proved defective, and we concluded to wait until we could get a fresh supply!”

Manti Herald (UT, 1867)

Number 7, March 30, 1867 carried the following story:

“Great Salt Lake City, March 22–I advise the brethren of Sanpete to keep their cattle where they will be safe, and not be out alone.–B. Young.”

Some issues with red lines and/or column rules

Information Sources:

Manti Herald (UT, `1867)

Bibliography:  J. Cecil Alter, Early Utah Journalism (Salt Lake City:  Utah State Historical Society, 1938), 108-110; Robert F. Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West:  A Pictorial History of Journalism and Printing on the Frontier (New York:  Bonanza Books, 1969); Bob Karolevitz, “Pen and Ink Newspapers of the Old West,” Frontier Times, 44:2 (Feb.-March 1970), 30, 63-64;  Kate B. Carter (compiler), “Journalism in Pioneer Days Daughters of Utah Pioneers,” Historical Pamphlet, April 1943, p.143; Don A. Carpenter, “A Century of Journalism in Manti, Utah, 1867-1967,” unpublished M.A. Thesis, 1968, July.

Manti Herald (UT, 1867)

Locations:  Salt Lake City Public Library; front page, Vol. 1, No. 13, May 4, 1886, reproduced in Karolevitz (1970), 30.,  Mormon Archives (film) Ms d 7103 #1 and originals. [Note:  A bound set of the Manti Herald and Sanpete Advertisers are held in the safe, off periodicals, sub-basement, listed on old card catalog, not computer]

The Maine Reform (ME, no date)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Maine

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Unknown

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

None

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  American Antiquarian Society, Worceseter, MA

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