The Old Flag (TX, 1864)
Place of Publication: Camp Ford, Tyler, Smith County, Texas
Frequency: Bi-weekly, irregular
Volume and Issue Data: Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb. 17, 1864-No.3, March 13, 1864
Size and Format: 8 1/2 x 11; four pages per issue; three columns; pen and ink
Editor/Publisher: Capt. William H. May (and J.P. Robens?); a 12-page facsimile edition was published by J.P. Robens and William H. May entitled, The Old Flag: First Publication by Union Prisoners at Camp Ford, Tyler, Texas, V. 1, No. 1-3; Feb. 17-March 13, 1864: Preface includes history of the manuscript plus some items and advertisements from the Ford City Herald
Title Changes and Continuation: Some references to advertisements from the Ford City Herald in the Library of Virginia’s Civil War 150 Legacy Project (thanks to Renee M. Savits, of the CW 150 Legacy Project). According to the Herald, “This branch of our imense (sic) establishment is now complete. The new Type and Materials of The Herald, in addition to the well stocked Office of the “OLD FLAG,” removed and refitted, enables us to give notice that we are fully prepared to execute all kinds of Plain and Fancy Job Printing with neatness and dispatch. Terms, CASH.”
General Description and Notes:
The Old Flag was published by a Union soldier during an imprisonment of 13 months in the Confederate prison at Tyler, Texas. Each issue was read aloud in the various cabins by some member of the “Mess.” When all had read or heard it read, the paper was returned by the “subscriber” to the “office publication.”
The paper’s primary goal was to relieve the almost unbearably eventless and monotonous life of Camp Ford. Contributions commented on local news and camp issues, displayed poetry and art, and played with satire, jokes and chess problems. Advertisements, which appeared in every issue, were genuine. Most offered the services of skilled prisoners for the benefit of the others. For example, pipe makers, barbers, cigar makers, shoe shines and “job printing” (by the editor) were all available in the prison city.
The Old Flag (TX, 1864)
The Old Flag was one of two and possibly three handwritten Civil War newspapers published at Camp Ford, a Confederate prison complex in Tyler and Hempstead, Texas. Camp Ford was the largest Confederate military prison in Texas. The prison held both officers and enlisted men from 1863 to the end of war. The prison held as many as 4,900 prisoners by July 1864. Living conditions in the tented enclosure were generally good. Fresh water, adequate shelter and plentiful food supplies made the prison a relatively healthy place; during its 21-month existence, roughly 250 soldiers died in the camp. Most soldiers were allowed to keep many of their possessions, to manufacture items for sale and to purchase food and supplies from local farmers and merchants. To facilitate these economic transactions, The Old Flag published a “REVIEW OF THE TEXAS MARKET-for the Month of February, 1864″ in its March 1 edition.
Capt. William H. May, of the 23rd Connecticut Volunteers, with the assistance of other Union soldiers, published and edited at least three issues of The Old Flag between February 17 and March 13, 1864, during their 13-month confinement in the Confederate prison camp. According to J.P. Robens, one of the prisoners, the paper was published on sheets of “unruled letter paper, in imitation of print, a steel pen being employed in the absence of a Hoe Press.” The three-column, four-page paper made liberal use of large headlines and graphic elements.
The paper’s primary goal was “to contribute as far as possible towards enlivening the monotonous, and at times almost unbearably eventless life of Camp Ford–and to cultivate a mutual good feeling between all.” Contributions were solicited on matters of local news and camp issues. The Old Flag published poetry and art, and included satire, jokes and chess problems. Display advertisements appeared in every issue, and “most of them bona fide, genuine.” Most of the ads promoted the services of skilled prisoners for the benefit of the others. For example, pipe makers, barbers, cigar makers, shoe shines and “job printing” (by the editor) were all available in the prison city.
Summary of Contents of The Old Flag, 1:1, February 17, 1864
(Measured in column inches; 33 column inches per page)
The Old Flag (TX, 1864)
The first number announced that the next issue would be in “an entire new dress, we having received new Types from the Foundry of J. Connor & Son, of N.Y.! This number is printed with ‘secesh’ ink, which does not appear to ‘take’ well upon Yankee paper.” Only one copy was published of each number, which was then read aloud in the various cabins by some member of the “Mess.” When all the prisoners had read or heard it read, the paper was returned by the “Subscriber” to the “Office of Publication.”
In the third number, March 15, 1864, the editor published his intentions to preserve The Old Flag after his release from Camp Ford.
TO OUR PATRONS
We shall make it our first object on our arrival at New York City–which will probably be within a few week after our Exchange–to learn the practicability of getting the three numbers of the “Old Flag” Lithographed. Should the expense be too great to warrant our adopting this means of securing fac simile [sic] copies, we shall print with types as nearly as similar to the letter penned by us as can be procured, with heading and illustrations engraved. We shall endeavor to make the copies close imitations of the original papers. In addition we propose to publish a few accurate pictures, delineating life at Camp Ford, Camp Groce, &c, printed on sheets inserted in each number of the “Old Flag” with a Title Page, and complete List of the Officers Prisoners [sic] at this place, neatly bound.
The editor kept his promise. The lithographed reproduction of The Old Flag was published in New York in 1864 and included a “List of officers, prisoners of war at Camp Ford . . . giving rank, regiment, where and when captured.”
After prisoners were released from Camp Ford, the editor published a lithographed reproduction of the handwritten.
According to Mary Witkowski, of the Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, CT, Captain May was a newspaper man in civilian life.
The Old Flag (TX, 1864)
Bibliography: Roy Alden Atwood, “Captive Audiences: Handwritten Prisoner-of-War Newspapers of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition and the War Between the States,” Annual Convention of the American Journalism Historians Association (AJHA), Salt Lake City, UT, Oct. 1993; F. Lee Lawrence and Robert W. Glover, Camp Ford, C.S.A.: The Story of Union Prisoners in Texas(Austin: Texas Civil War Centennial Advisory Committee, 1964), 36-37; The Old Flag (privately published, 1914).
Locations: Barnum Museum, Bridgeport, CT; The Old Flag, lithographed reproduction: DLC
. Patricia L. Faust, editor, Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War, p. 110.
. The date on The Old Flag, 1:3, isMarch 13, 1864, but a poem on p. 3, “To Mrs. Col R.T.P. Allen,” is dated March 14. The poem was likely a day-late insertion.
. J.P. Robens, “Preface,” The Old Flag, lithograph reproduction (New York: W.H. May, ), n.p.
. The Old Flag, 1:3 (March 13, 1864), p. 2: “Statistic–There have been manufactured by knife in this camp, since last September, over forty setts [sic]of Chessmen, of which Lt. John Woodward has himself completed eight of the best!
“The number of Pipes turned out, as near as can be arrived at, is not less than Five Hundred–both of wood and clay.”
. The Old Flag, 1:1 (Feb. 17, 1864), p. 2.
. J.P. Robens, “Preface,” n.p.