The Shark (MA-CA, 1849)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Shipboard Duxbury en route to California gold fields from Boston

Frequency:  Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  “Issued on The Duxbury throughout the spring of 1849″ (Lewis)

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  Possibly continued by The Petrel, after departure from Rio De Janeiro

General Description and Notes:

The Shark seems to be the first handwritten newspaper aboard the Duxbury.  Extant copies of The Petrel, published on the Duxbury apparently during the same voyage, were possibly published after the ship’s layover at Rio, although the issue numbering suggests that both papers may have been published contemporaneously.

According to Lewis, the Duxbury left Boston for the California gold fields in February, 1849, carrying the Old Harvard Company, one of the hundreds of New England joint-stock companies organized to capitalize on the gold of California.  One writer states that during 1849, 102 joint stock companies sailed from Massachusetts alone, the number of their members ranging from five to 180, the average being around 50, and their total exceeding 4,200.  Each member paid an equal sum into the common treasury.  Each had an equal voice in its management and stood to reap an equal share of the profits.  Often there was also a board of directors, chosen from among the town’s leaders, older men who helped finance the expeditions, but who remained at home. (Lewis, p. 22).

One passenger observed that there was “too much praying on board.”  Each morning the Duxbury’s preacher, the Rev. Brierly, read a chapter from the Bible, offered a prayer, and delivered a brief sermon.  On Wednesdays he presided over a prayer meeting; on Sundays he preached “a full-length sermon” and followed this with a class discussion group; on Tuesdays and Fridays he conducted a lyceum.  This was during the early stages of the voyage; later this comprehensive program collapsed, as it did on so many other ships, and during the final weeks of the Duxbury’s company seems to have been without religious instruction of any kind.

Hard feelings developed between officers and passengers aboard the Duxbury on the first leg of its voyage.  The chief complaint was against the food and the manner of service.  The Duxbury, an ancient three-masted craft, so hard to maneuver that she was said to require all of Massachusetts Bay in which to turn, left Boston so loaded that the galley space was inadequate.  After a week of subsisting on two sparse meals a day, the passengers met and made known their grievances.  For a long time their protests were disregarded.  “Petition after petition was sent in to the captain without producing any other effect than the reply, ‘If it is not enough, go without.’”  The group continued on short rations–”we were allowed one-half pint of weak tea a day and three pounds of sugar a month’–until the Duxbury reached Rio.  There a committee of passengers related their troubles to the United States Consul.  The result was that the capacity of the galley was ordered enlarged and the passengers thereafter fared rather better.

Lewis notes that this and other shipboard newspapers (see, e.g., Barometer, The Emigrant, and The Petrel) “lacked the formality of print but more nearly approached conventional journalism” than the various travel journals and diaries kept during the voyages.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Oscar Lewis, Sea Routes to the Gold Fields:  The Migration by Water to California in 1849-1852 (New York:  A.A. Knopf, 1949), pp. 22-29, 89-92

Locations:  Four numbers at the Huntington Library, Manuscripts Division, San Marino, CA; accompanies the published Journal of the Duxbury Voyage, Boston-San Francisco, by William H. DeCosta, 1849, Feb.-June 23 (HM 234)

Scorpion (CA, 1857)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Placerville, California

Frequency: One known issue

Volume and Issue Data: 1857

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher: Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

According to Kennedy, the paper may have been humorous.

“The Scorpion was a manuscript paper which roused the ire of a contributor of the Mountain Democrat.  In a letter published in that paper on March 27, 1857, the contributor, who signed herself “Manta,” violently belabored the Scorpion.  It seems to have been a scandal sheet, published by a group of men who resented the refusal of some young women to dance with them.  If the Scorpion was any more venomous than the women who described it, it must have been one of the most poisonous papers on record.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Kennedy, Newspapers of California North Mines, 524

Locations: Unknown

The Petrel (MA-CA, 1849)

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The Petrel (MA-CA, 1849)

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  “On board Ship Duxbury,” clipper out of Boston en route to the California gold fields)

Frequency:  Weekly; irregular; “published every Monday morning”

Volume and Issue Data:   Vol. 1, No. 1, March 26, 1849; Vol. 1, No. 2, April 2, 1849; Vol. 1, Nos. 3-7 and 9, no dates; Vol. 1, No. 8, lead article dated June 10, 1849; Vol. 1, No. 10, no date, but article on “Celebration of American Independence.”  The third number has no title or volume-number.  The term “petrel” apparently refers to various sea birds.

Size and Format:  8 x 10 in.; oil cloth-like paper; two columns; pen and ink; illustrated; 2-4 pp., variable

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown (“Smike, Jr.”?)

Title Changes and Continuation:  Continuation or contemporary of Shark (See Shark) published aboard the Duxbury on same voyage

General Description and Notes:

The Petrel (MA-CA, 1849)

The Petrel was published onboard the Duxbury apparently during the same voyage as produced the Shark.  The issue numbering suggests that both papers may have been published contemporaneously.

The Duxbury left Boston for the California gold fields in February, 1849 carrying the Old Harvard Company, one of the hundreds of New England joint-stock companies organized to capitalize on the gold of California.  One writer states that during 1849, 102 joint stock companies sailed from Massachusetts alone, the number of their members ranging from five to 180, the average being around 50, and their total exceeding 4,200.  Each member paid an equal sum into the common treasury.  Each had an equal voice in tis management and stood to reap an equal share of the profits.  Often there was also a board of directors, chosen from among the town’s leaders, older men who helped finance the expeditions but themselves remained at home. (Lewis, p. 22).

The first issue, published March 26, 1849, contained the following introduction:

 “Ourselves.”  We appear before our readers to-day, for the first time, with our weekly budget of fun, fact, and fancy, for the particular edification our amusement of the passengers on board of the Ship Duxbury now on her voyage from Boston to San Francisco.  We shall continue its publication as often as circumstances will admit, and should be pleased to receive well written communications upon any subject that may be thought interesting to the “crowd.”  All communications must be handed in as early as Friday morning.–Smike, Jr.

The Petrel (MA-CA, 1849)

One passenger observed that there was “too much praying on board.”  Each morning the Duxbury’s preacher, the Rev. Brierly, read a chapter from the Bible, offered a prayer, and delivered a brief sermon.  On Wednesdays he presided over a prayer meeting; on Sundays he preached “a full-length sermon” and followed this with a class discussion group; on Tuesdays and Fridays he conducted a lyceum.  This was during the early stages of the voyage; later this comprehensive program collapsed, as it did on so many other ships, and during the final weeks of the Duxbury’s company seems to have been without religious instruction of any kind.

Hard feelings developed between officers and passengers aboard the Duxbury on the first leg of its voyage.  The chief complaint was against the food and the manner of service.  The Duxbury, an ancient three-masted craft, so hard to maneuver that she was said to require all of Massachusetts Bay in which to turn, left Boston so loaded that the galley space was inadequate.  After a week of subsisting on two sparse meals a day, the passengers met and made known their grievances.  For a long time their protests were disregarded.  “Petition after petition was sent in to the captain without producing any other effect than the reply, ‘If it is not enough, go without.’”  The group continued on short rations–”we were allowed one-half pint of weak tea a day and three pounds of sugar a month’–until the Duxbury reached Rio.  There a committee of passengers related their troubles to the United States consul.  The result was that the capacity of the galley was ordered enlarged and the passengers thereafter fared rather better.

The Petrel (MA-CA, 1849)

Lewis notes that this and other shipboard newspapers (see, e.g., Barometer, The Emigrant, and The Petrel) “lacked the formality of print but more nearly approached conventional journalism” than the various travel journals and diaries kept during the voyages.

Greever reports that Easterners frequently chose to go to California via ship around Cape Horn.  “Between December 14, 1848, and January 18, 1849 [probably about the time the Duxbury embarked on its voyage], sixty-one ships with an average of fifty passengers each sailed for California from New York City, Boston, Salem, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Norfolk.  In the month of February, 1849, . . . seventy [ships sailed] from Boston  . . . .” (pp. 21-22)

“The trip around from the East Coast around the Horn and up to San Francisco often took more than six months; the average time was 168 days” (p. 23)

“If Thanksgiving, Christmas, or the Fourth of July occurred during the trip, there would be quite a celebration” (p. 22).

The two highlights of the journey around South America were stops in Rio and at Juan Ferdnandez island. The Petrel recorded the pleasures of shore leave and even illustrated the events in later issues (see The Petrel figures).

Captain DeCosta also imitated newspapers of the day with an entry that read:  “By telegraph–We have, says a New York paper, just received intelligence from a California-bound vessel, stating that they have a very rare animal on board, which was caught crossing the line . . . .”  While the story was a hoax, the joke could only have worked if the passengers were familiar with the “telegraph news” system of the day, and took the practice of ship-borne intelligence for granted.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  See Oscar Lewis, Sea Routes to the Gold Fields:  The Migration by Water to Californiain 1849-1852 (New York:  A.A. Knopf, 1949), p. 89.  See also G.B. Worden letter to Ira Brown:  Rio de Janeiro, ALS 1849 April 23, University of  California, Berkeley, Bancroft Library, Manuscript Collection, Mss C-B 547:138; and William S. Greever, Bonanza West:  The Story of Western Mining Rushes,  1848-1900 (University of Idaho Press, 1963), pp. 21-23

Locations:  Eleven numbers:  Huntington Library, Manuscripts Division, San Marino, California; accompanying the journal of the Duxbury voyage, Boston-San Francisco, by William H. DeCosta, 1849, Feb.-June 23 (HM 234); 10 numbers:  University of California, Berkeley, Bancroft Library, Manuscript Collection, Mss C-F 147; three numbers: (no dates, circa Feb.-July, 1849) Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

Owl (CA, 1859)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: North Bloomfield, California (1859)

Frequency:  Only one issue known

Volume and Issue Data:  ca. February 1859

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  None (see Miner’s News)

General Description and Notes:

According to Kennedy, North Bloomfield, a mining town on the South Fork of the Yuba River, did not have a printed newspaper in the 1850s, but the Hydraulic Press identified at least two manuscript papers, the Owl and the Miner’s News.

In the Feb. 5, 1859 issue of the Press, the editor reported that the Owl was North Bloomfield’s paper:

THE OWL.  This is the name of a manuscript paper published at North Bloomfield, and of which we have received a copy.  The owl was Minerva’s bird; but there is not much wisdom about this one.  We learn from its advertising columns that one gentleman holds all of the following positions:  Post Master, Express Agent, Justice of the Peace, Road Overseer, School Director, Gold Dust buyer and News Agent.  There’s honor for you.  Talk about republics being ungrateful.

B.P. Avery, editor of the Hydraulic Press, did not identify the editor or provide other details about the Owl.  No other references to the manuscript paper are known.

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterB. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 25, 39, 511-12, 608

Locations:  None located, but cited in Hydraulic Press, Feb. 5, 1859

Noilpum (CA, 1857-1858)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Hay Fork, Trinity County, California (ca. 1857-1858)

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Unknown

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown (Isaac Cox?)

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

Kennedy notes that “except for a manuscript paper called the Noilpum, published at Hay Fork, all of Trinity County’s early newspapers were printed at Weaverville.  At most, only a very few copies may have been produced, and none are extant.

Isaac Cox reported in his history of Trinity County published in 1858,

We have named the “Noilpum” without spreading ourselves into explanatory easings, but now it comes.  It is the Hay Fork newspaper, an institution to absorb and assimilitate the literary exudations not otherwise provided for; a newspaper which, if presented to a Faust or Guttenberg of our day, would soon learn to know the “devil,” which again in all probability would cause relief in the tar and pitch market, the only operators in that commodity at present being the brokers of the squaw boudoirs.  The Noilpum is a goodly paper, and though it advocates the Administration in order not to hurt its books, would go dead downright for Jackson and Douglas in the question of “honest opinion.”   A paper is “ably” conducted, knowing nothing of Hoe and Co.’s Mammoth Cylinder, Anti-Friction, anti, etc. presses, or any other sleight-of-hand exponent of public greasing, being thus thrown back on pen and ink, will naturally get muddy and greasy enough to answer to the “mudsill” call and the pet name of printers’ cordiality, “dirty sheet.”  We may guess now you know what the “Noilpum” is.

Kennedy speculates that the Noilpum may have been a humorous paper (despite the lame attempt at humor above).

Information Sources:                        

Bibliography:  Isaac Cox, The Annals of Trinity County (San Francisco:  Commercial Book and Job Steam Printing, 1858), 125;  Chester P. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford, 1949, pp. 30-31, 39, 289, 574-75, and 603)

Locations:  None located

Miner’s News (CA, 1859)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: North Bloomfield, California

Frequency:  Monthly (Only two issues known)

Volume and Issue Data:  ca. February and March, 1859

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  James Marriot (1859)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None (see the OWL)

General Description and Notes:

According to Kennedy, North Bloomfield, California, had no printed newspapers, but it did have two manuscript publications:  the Owl and the Miner’s News.  The appearance of the Miner’s News was announced in the Hydraulic Press:

THE MINER’S NEWS–This is the title of a new manuscript newspaper published at North Bloomfield by Jas. Marriot, and of which we have received the first number.  It presents quite a neat appearance, the head being ornamented by a drawing of an honest miner with this pick and shovel on his way to work.

The editor of the Hydraulic Press, B.P. Avery, then quoted a discussion of chronic grumblers from the Miner’s News, and said, “As our cotem. [sic] intends to devote his paper to the mining interest, we wish him success, and will gladly exchange.”

On March 12, 1859, the Hydraulic Press editor noted another issued of the Miner’s News, but the North Bloomfield paper did not appear in the columns of the press again.  Kennedy observes, “Whether both the Owl and the Miner’s News suspended publication shortly after they started, or Avery was tired of mentioning them cannot be determined” (p. 512).

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterP. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 25, 37, 512, 608)

Locations:  None located, but cited in Hydraulic Press,Feb. 19, 1859andMarch 12, 1859

The Miner’s Expose (CA, 1856)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Granite Hill, El Dorado County, California

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1856

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  “Mr. Baker”

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

The newspaper Alta California printed the following item in its Feb. 14, 1856 edition:

NEW PAPER–We learn that a paper entitled The Miner’s Expose, and edited by Mr. Baker, has lately been started at Granite Hill, El Dorado County.  We have not yet seen a copy.

This was the only reference to the Miner’s Expose Kennedy located in his research on northern California mining camp newspapers.  According to Kennedy, “one might guess, from the title, that it was a protest paper of some sort, but at best that is only a guess.  It probably was a manuscript paper and there is a possibility it was never published at all.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterP. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 26, 37, 532-33, 601

Locations:  None located, but cited in Alta California, Feb. 14, 1856

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