The True Templar (NS, 1866)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  East Branch (?) and/or later Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Frequency: “Published Semi-Monthly” (Vol. 1, No. 2)

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 2, Wednesday, March 14, 1866

Size and Format:  11.5 x 17 (?)

Editor/Publisher: John James Stewart

Title Changes and Continuation:  Editor went on to become the founding editor of the province’s major paper, The Chronicle-Herald

General Description and Notes:

According to Dalhousie University’s Archives and Special Collections J.J. Stewart Maritime Collection website’s introduction of the collection,

“When he was 35, John James Stewart (1844-1907) decided to leave his Halifax law firm and become the editor of a fledgling provincial daily newspaper. His family greeted the news with skepticism and concern. J.J. Stewart had already left a good teaching position and the principalship of the Amherst Academy in order to become a lawyer. To give up law after only four years seemed such a waste. J.J. Stewart quickly proved that his decision was a good one. Within five years he had shrewdly developed his Morning Herald into the province’s most successful newspaper.

“In retrospect, J.J. Stewart’s decision to become a newspaper editor should not have been a total surprise. When he was 22, J.J. Stewart had edited and put out his own handwritten temperance newspaper, The True Templar [emphasis added]. He also had a deep respect for the power of the printed word; indeed, he viewed it “as the most powerful of all human forces …” A man of strong political, social, and religious convictions, Stewart held definite opinions and possessed the writing skills required to present them effectively. The editorial page of a newspaper would and did provide J.J. Stewart with an ideal outlet.

“When it was clear that his newspaper was on a solid footing, Stewart branched out into the banking business. He rose to the presidency of both the Acadia Loan Corporation and the People’s Bank of Halifax. A strong Conservative, Stewart also devoted many hours to party affairs and made two unsuccessful bids for election to the provincial assembly.

“In addition to his newspaper and banking work, J.J. Stewart took an active part in the social, religious, and intellectual life of Halifax. Although a member of the Masons, the Navy League, the Good Templars, and the YMCA, Stewart’s primary commitments were to the North British Society and the Nova Scotia Historical Society. It was to the latter organization that he presented his landmark paper on early journalism in Nova Scotia. His carefully researched and well-written paper is still the authoritative source for information about the beginnings of the newspaper industry in Nova Scotia and Canada. J.J. Stewart clearly had a talent for historical writing.

“Away from the public eye, Stewart conducted a lifelong study of the history of Nova Scotia. No aspect of Nova Scotia’s past was neglected. Even material about major events which had impacted on Nova Scotia was carefully acquired and studied. The American revolution, the roots of Canadian federalism, works of major British authors, agricultural chemistry, and the depression in the West Indies were just a few of the related topics investigated by J.J. Stewart.

“Unlike the other major Nova Scotia bibliophile of the period, T.B. Akins, J.J. Stewart did not concentrate on book-length works. Half of his collection of over 3,000 works is in pamphlet form and many are what would have been considered ephemeral even in his era. Due to his interest in Nova Scotia’s printing history and in all aspects of Nova Scotia life, he collected everything from church bulletins of special services to the annual reports of the Micmac Missionary Society. He was especially diligent in collecting early newspapers, magazines, and almanacs, materials which provide valuable insight into all aspects of nineteenth century provincial life.

“In mid-February of 1907, J.J. Stewart was badly burned by flames from an overturned oil stove in his home. Two weeks later, Nova Scotia lost one of its most capable newspapermen and devoted boosters. Following the settlement of his estate, his widow presented his impressive historical library to Dalhousie University. Although his untimely death silenced his pen, J.J. Stewart has provided the resources for future researchers to study and write about the history of Nova Scotia.”

According to Karen Smith of the Dalhousie University Libraries (in correspondence with the HN editor), “It obviously existed in at least two issues since we have a Vol. 1, no. [sic] 2 issue.  It is in very fragile condition so I could not copy the whole issue for you.” She goes on to note that

“John James Stewart was just 21 years old in March 1866. He grew up in a very small rural Nova Scotia community, but quickly demonstrated a scholarly aptitude and went on to become a lawyer, businessman, and the founding editor of what is still our major provincial paper, The Chronicle-Herald. He also was a very knowledgeable book collector and his excellent collection was donated to Dalhousie University upon his untimely death in 1907. In early life, J.J. Stewart was obviously a temperance man.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Stewart, J. J. “Early journalism in Nova Scotia,” in Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, 1888, Vol. 6, pp. 91 – 122

Link: Dalhousie University’s Archives and Special Collections J.J. Stewart Maritime Collection website

Locations:  Special Collections, Killam Memorial Library, Dalhousie University Libraries, Halifax, Nova Scotia

Sussex Owl (Eng-India, 1866)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Aboard the British troop ship HMS Sussex from Kingstown, England to Kurrachee, India (now Karachi, Pakistan?)

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  September-December 1866

Size and Format:  426 pages

Editor/Publisher:  T.S. Bigge, Captain, and authors A. Lot and A. Nicols

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

This is a 426-page handwritten newspaper, published from September-December, 1866 on board the British troop ship Sussex during her maiden voyage from Kingstown, England to Kurrachee, India.

Information Sources:                            

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  Woodson Research Center, MS231 (in bound volume), Fondren Library, Rice University, Houston, TX, woodson@rice.edu

Little Joker (TX, 1866-1869)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Jacksboro, Texas

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Published sometime between 1866 and 1869.

Size and Format:  On foolscap

Editor/Publisher:  H.H. McConnell

Title Changes and Continuation:  Same editor/publisher produced the BIG INJUN at Fort Belknap,Texas and THE GRASSHOPPER at Fort Buffalo, Texas.

General Description and Notes:

According to Whisenhunt, the Jacksboro area had no fewer than four newspapers between 1866 and 1869, although only one was printed.  The editor of all four was H.H. McConnell, a soldier first assigned to Jacksboro, Texas in 1866.  McConnell recounts his journalistic efforts and military experience on the Texas frontier in the Reconstruction period in his autobiography, Five Years a Cavalryman.

Shortly after he arrived in Jacksboro, McConnell and other soldiers published a weekly newspaper, LITTLE JOKER, on foolscap.  The paper circulated among the soldiers at Jacksboro.  The Jacksboro post was temporarily abandoned by the military, and the LITTLE JOKER “was ignominiously packed on a Quartermaster’s house and moved to Fort Belknap.”

At Fort Belknap soon issued another handwritten paper, BIG INJUN, intended for a military audience.  According to McConnell, “Here the genius of the editor again broke forth, and the ‘Big Injun’ for a time shed an undying lustre on the literature of the nineteenth century.”  The paper was short-lived:  “Like a meteor flashing along the midnight sky–brilliant for a moment, then rendering the darkness more intense–so the ‘Big Injun’ ran its course.”

McConnell’s transfer to nearby Fort Buffalo Springs marked the publication of his third handwritten, THE GRASSHOPPER.  Like its predecessors, THE GRASSHOPPER was short-lived.  Fort Buffalo Springs was soon abandoned for the more strategic Jacksboro post.

McConnell was finally reassigned to Fort Richardson where he contracted with a Weatherford,Tex.printer to publish The Flea.  This, his first printed newspaper, appeared Feb. 1, 1869, but lasted only six issues, until June 15, 1869.

According the Whisenut, McConnell’s handwritten papers did little more than provide diversion for the soldiers at their respective military posts, but “this was important.  Their very existence also implies that the life of the frontier soldier was mostly a monotonous existence despite the legend and aura of romance that surrounds the United States Cavalry.”

Information Sources:                   

Bibliography:  H.H. McConnell, Five Years a Cavalryman (Jacksboro, Texas:  J.N. Rogers and Co., 1889), p. 174; Donald W. Whisenhunt, “The Frontier Newspaper:  A Guide to Society and Culture,” Journalism Quarterly, 45:4 (Winter 1968), 727; see also Theronne Thompson, “Fort Buffalo Springs, Texas, Border Post,” West Texas Historical Association Yearbook, 36:168 (October 1960).

Location:  None

The Leasure Hour (NC, 1866,1869)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Harrington, North Carolina (Cumberland County, now known as Harnett County)

Frequency:  The 1866 issue says monthly.

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. l, No 1, October 1866; and Vol. I, No. 1, May 1869, and No. 2, June 1869.

Size and Format:   The 1866 copy is 8 1/2″ x 5 1/2; all are 4 pp. each

Editor/Publisher:  “Harrington & Co.” for the first one and Sion A. Harrington (postmaster at Harrington, NC, in 1851) for the other two.

Title Changes and Continuation:  Same title but Vol. 1 appears in 1866 and again in 1869.

General Description and Notes:

Contains verses, essays, and miscellany.  The 1866 issue is described as “crudely printed”.  The other two look as if they may be drafts prepared for publication, but no published copies have been found.

According to Michael Ray Smith, ” Sion A. Harrington, John’s younger brother, printed at least one known copy of a handwritten newspaper called the Weekly News on February 2, 1869, and two issues of The Leasure Hour, a monthly publication, in May and June 1869″ (Free Press in Freehand, p. 70).

Information Sources:                   

Bibliography: Michael Ray Smith, Free Press in Freehand (Grand Rapids, MI: Edenridge Press, 2011)

Locations:   The 1866 paper is in the North Carolina room (C050), and the other two (Accession No. 3341) are in the Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Manuscripts Department,  Chapel Hill, NC

The Grasshopper (TX, 1866-1869)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Fort Buffalo Springs, Texas

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Published sometime between 1866 and 1869.

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  H.H. McConnell

Title Changes and Continuation:  Same editor/publisher produced LITTLE JOKER at Jacksboro, Texas and the BIG INJUN at Fort Belknap, Texas.

General Description and Notes:

According to Whisenhunt, the Jacksboro area had no fewer than four newspapers between 1866 and 1869, although only one was printed.  The editor of all four was H.H. McConnell, a soldier first assigned to Jacksboro, Texas in 1866.  McConnell recounts his journalistic efforts and military experience on the Texas frontier in the Reconstruction period in his autobiography, Five Years a Cavalryman.

Shortly after he arrived in Jacksboro, McConnell and other soldiers published a weekly newspaper, LITTLE JOKER, on foolscap.  The paper circulated among the soldiers at Jacksboro.  The Jacksboro post was temporarily abandoned by the military, and the LITTLE JOKER “was ignominiously packed on a Quartermaster’s hourse and moved to Fort Belknap.”

At Fort Belknap soon issued another handwritten paper, BIG INJUN, intended for a military audience.  According to McConnell, “Here the genius of the editor again broke forth, and the ‘Big Injun’ for a time shed an undying lustre on the literature of the nineteenth century.”  The paper was short-lived:  “Like a meteor flashing along the midnight sky–brilliant for a moment, then rendering the darkness more intense–so the ‘Big Injun’ ran its course.”

McConnell’s transfer to nearby Fort Buffalo Springs marked the publication of his third handwritten, THE GRASSHOPPER.  Like its predecessors, THE GRASSHOPPER was short-lived.  Fort Buffalo Springs was soon abandoned for the more strategic Jacksboro post.

McConnell was finally reassigned to Fort Richardson where he contracted with a Weatherford, Tex. printer to publish The Flea.  This, his first printed newspaper, appeared Feb. 1, 1869, but lasted only six issues, until June 15, 1869.

According the Whisenut, McConnell’s handwritten papers did little more than provide diversion for the soldiers at their respective military posts, but “this was important.  Their very existence also implies that the life of the frontier soldier was mostly a monotonous existence despite the legend and aura of romance that surrounds the United States Cavalry.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  H.H. McConnell, Five Years a Cavalryman (Jacksboro, Texas:  J.N. Rogers and Co., 1889), p. 174; Donald W. Whisenhunt, “The Frontier Newspaper:  A Guide to Society and Culture,” Journalism Quarterly, 45:4 (Winter 1968), 727; see also Theronne Thompson, “Fort Buffalo Springs, Texas, Border Post,” West Texas Historical Association Yearbook, 36:168 (October 1960).

Location:  None

The Esquimeaux (AK, 1866-1867)

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The Esquimeaux (AK, 1866-1867)

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Libbysville, Port Clarence, Russian America (Nos. 1-10, 1866-1867), and Camp Libby, Plover Bay, East Siberia (Nos. 11 and 12, 1867)

Frequency:  Monthly

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, Nos. 1-12; Sunday, Oct. 14, 1866; 12 issues

Size and Format:  52 pages; manuscript and printed editions

Editor/Publisher:  John J. Harrington, editor; Turnbull and Smith (San Francisco), publisher of printed numbers

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description & Notes:

The Esquimeaux (AK, 1866-1867)

According to Wickersham, this monthly publication, of which Nos. 1 to 10 inclusive were published in Libbysville, Port Clarence, Russian America, and Nos. 11 and 12 in Camp Libby, Plover Bay, Eastern Siberia, appeared in both manuscript and later print.

The paper provided information of the workers building the Western Union telegraph line from the United States at Puget Sound, via the Fraser and Yukon rivers, to Port Clarence and then across the Bering Strait to Plover Bay and points in Asia and Europe.

The manuscript was taken to San Francisco on the failure of the project, given the success of the Trans-Atlantic cable, and printed there by the editor.  Editor’s preface is dated Oct. 31, 1867.

The Esquimeaux (AK, 1866-1867)

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  James Wickersham, A Bibliography of Alaska Literature, 1724-1924 (Cordova, Ak.:  Cordova Daily Times Print, 1927), 258

Citations: Daily Evening Bulletin (San Francisco, California), Monday, December 02, 1867; Issue [47]  

Locations:  Alaska State Libraries:  Alaska Historical Library, AkAAR, AkAU, AkK, AkNNC; CU-B?

Big Injun (TX, 1866, 1869)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Fort Belknap, Texas

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Published sometime between 1866 and 1869.

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  H.H. McConnell

Title Changes and Continuation:  Same editor/publisher produced LITTLE JOKER at Jacksboro, Texas, prior to his transfer to Fort Belknap.  After creating BIG INJUN, he was transfered again a short distance to Fort Buffalo and “again broke forth” with THE GRASSHOPPER.

General Description & Notes:

According to Whisenhunt, the Jacksboro area had no fewer than four newspapers between 1866 and 1869, although only one was printed.  The editor of all four was H.H. McConnell, a soldier first assigned to Jacksboro, Texas in 1866.  McConnell recounts his journalistic efforts and military experience on the Texas frontier in the Reconstruction period in his autobiography, Five Years a Cavalryman.

Shortly after he arrived in Jacksboro, McConnell and other soldiers published a weekly newspaper, LITTLE JOKER, on foolscap.  The paper circulated among the soldiers at Jacksboro.  The Jacksboro post was temporarily abandoned by the military, and the LITTLE JOKER “was ignominiously packed on a Quartermaster’s hourse and moved to Fort Belknap.”

At Fort Belknap soon issued another handwritten paper, BIG INJUN, intended for a military audience.  According to McConnell, “Here the genius of the editor again broke forth, and the ‘Big Injun’ for a time shed an undying lustre on the literature of the nineteenth century.”  The paper was short-lived:  “Like a meteor flashing along the midnight sky–brilliant for a moment, then rendering the darkness more intense–so the ‘Big Injun’ ran its course.”

McConnell’s transfer to nearby Fort Buffalo Springs marked the publication of his third handwritten, THE GRASSHOPPER.  Like its predecessors, THE GRASSHOPPER was short-lived.  Fort Buffalo Springs was soon abandoned for the more strategic Jacksboro post.

McConnell was finally reassigned to Fort Richardson where he contracted with a Weatherford, Tex. printer to publish The Flea.  This, his first printed newspaper, appeared Feb. 1, 1869, but lasted only six issues, until June 15, 1869.

According the Whisenut, McConnell’s handwritten papers did little more than provide diversion for the soldiers at their respective military posts, but “this was important.  Their very existence also impolies that the life of the frontier soldier was mostly a monotonous existence despite the legend and aura of romance that surrounds the United States Cavalry.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  H.H. McConnell, Five Years a Cavalryman (Jacksboro, Texas:  J.N. Rogers and Co., 1889), p. 174; Donald W. Whisenhunt, “The Frontier Newspaper:  A Guide to Society and Culture,” Journalism Quarterly, 45:4 (Winter 1968), 727; see also Theronne Thompson, “Fort Buffalo Springs, Texas, Border Post,” West Texas Historical Association Yearbook, 36:168 (October 1960).

Locations:  None

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