The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

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The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Chennai, India

Frequency:  Daily

Volume and Issue Data:  Published since 1927, circulation approx. 21,000

Size and Format:  Broadsheet folded to make four pages; Urdu language publication; handwritten, then printed

Editor/Publisher:  Editor-in-Chief Syed Arifullah (youngest son of former editor Syed Fazlulla)

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

According to Wired Magazine, “the fax machine on 76-year-old Editor-in-Chief Syed Fazlulla’s [died April 26, 2008] crowded desk is by far the most sophisticated technology in the room.”

“Fazlulla, who is deep into creating the next issue of the handcrafted The Musalman daily newspaper, frowns as he deciphers the handwriting and searches for a cover story. After some consideration, he passes the page to his brother who translates it into Urdu. He in turn sends the text to the back room where writers take calligraphy quills in hand and begin.

“Here in the shadow of the Wallajah Mosque, a team of six puts out this hand-penned paper. Four of them are katibs — writers dedicated to the ancient art of Urdu calligraphy. It takes three hours using a pen, ink and ruler to transform a sheet of paper into news and art.”

According to Iran Radio Islam, the paper, whose name means “The Muslim,”

is a broadsheet folded to make four pages. The front page has local and national news. Page two has international news and editorials. Page three contains Hadith, quotes from the Qur’an and (incongruously) sports. The last page has “everything”, says Arifullah, with a focus on local news. There are ads from local businesses, “exhibitions, circus, new products”, and even Aligarh Muslim University.

News comes in from part-time reporters in different cities, once by fax, now also email. “We are not able to afford” full-time Urdu reporters, the editor says, so the material often comes in English. Three translators turn it into Urdu. The katibs then write the copy out on paper with quills and ink, three hours per page, and paste all the items on a form. If a mistake is made or a news update arrives, the page is rewritten. The form is turned into a negative, which is used to make the plate for printing.

The Wired magazine reporter observed that the paper’s

“. . . office is a center for the South Indian Muslim community and hosts a stream of renowned poets, religious leaders and royalty who contribute to the pages, or just hang out, drink chai and recite their most recent works to the staff. The Musalman publishes Urdu poetry and messages on devotion to God and communal harmony daily.

The newspaper’s content is not exactly hard-hitting. It covers the basics of local politics and the writers translate stories from English papers into Urdu. Still, the paper is widely read and appreciated by Muslims in Tripplicane and Chennai where the paper has a circulation of 20,000.

While the Musalman is a Muslim newspaper, it is a hub of South Asian liberalism, employing both women and non-Muslims. Half the katibs are women and the chief reporter is Hindu. Staff members say that Indira Gandhi, former prime minister of India, once called the business the epitome of what modern India should be.

The Urdu language is, according to Wired, “similar to spoken Hindi, Urdu is a mixture of Arabic, Persian and local Indian languages. It originated in the army camps of Muslim rulers in Delhi and has been the language of poets and artists because its rich roots draw on so many traditions across various cultures.”

But when British colonizers swept across India importing printing presses and English, Urdu ceased to be the official court language. It was spoken primarily by the Muslim community, but katibs could still make a living because no Urdu typeface existed.

That changed in 1997 with the first widely circulated Urdu computer font. Nowadays, people learn to read and write Urdu mostly as a hobby.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Scott Carney, “A Handwritten Daily Paper in India Faces the Digital Future,” Wired (magazine), July 6, 2007; Iran Radio Islam, “The Musalman: The Last Hand Printed Newspaper in India,” IRIB World Service-English, May 26, 2011.

Locations:  Unknown (Chennai, India)

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Moqui Mission Messenger (AZ, 1894-1895)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Keams Canyon, Arizona

Frequency:  Monthly

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan. 1894-Vol. 2, No. 4, April 1895

Size and Format:  One-column, two-page typed and mimeographed newsletter; after July, 1894:  four pages, two columns

Editor/Publisher:  Editor, Curtis P. Coe (1894-1895); anonymous editor (April 1894); Publisher, Moqui (Hopi) Reservation Faith Mission (before July, 1894), Otho F. Curtis, Chicago (after July, 1894)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

According to Littlefield and Parins, the Moqui Mission Messenger was devoted to supporting editor Coe’s mission activities among the Hopi, Navajo and Arapahoe Indians at the Moqui Reservation (est. 1883).  The audience was friends and supporters of Coe’s mission work.  In the first issue, Coe asked readers to send grass roots, seeds and other plant stock to assist agricultural development.  The paper also contained accounts of the editor’s experiences with the Indians of the reservation and descriptions of native customs, habits and religion.  News of others involved with the mission, inspirational items, statistics on Arizona weather, census data on Indians and reservation financial information completed the general content of the issues.  The March and April, 1895 issues contained information about Alaska where Coe was to assume in May the position of superintendent of the Wood Island, Alaska, orphanage operated by the Women’s American Baptist Home Mission Society of Boston.  The editor announced that the Messenger would be discontinued after April, but that subscribers would receive the mission society’s publication, The Echo thereafter.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (Washington, D.C.:  Government Publishing Office, 1910), 2:233; David F. Littlefield, Jr. and James W. Parins,  American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 (Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1984), 247-248

Locations:  DSI-BAE; ULS

A Manuscript Paper (UT, 1893)

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A Manuscript Paper (UT, 1893)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Hyrum, Utah

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 2, June 11, 1893

Size and Format:  Ledger (7 3/4 x 12+)

Editor/Publisher:  Clara Williams (Vol. 1, No. 2); “Written by the Y.M. & Y.L.M.I. Associations of Hyrum

Title Changes and Continuation:  See THE EDUCATOR, THE EVENINGSTAR, THE KNOWLEDGE SEEKER and YOUNG LADIES THOUGHTS; one of many papers published by the Young Men and Young Ladies Mutual Improvement Societies in Utah

General Description and Notes:

According to Alter, the Young Men’s and Young Ladies’ Mutual Improvement Associations of Hyrum published weekly literary journals largely in the interests and for the entertainment of their members during the late 1880s.  The publications carried news, religious items and weather reports.

“A Manuscript Paper” a jointly published by the young men and young ladies groups.  “The Knowledge Seeker” was published by the Young Men; “The Young Ladies Thoughts” and “The Evening Star” were published by the Young Ladies.  These papers appeared under various editors, since officers in these organizations changed hands regularly.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  J. Cecil Alter, Early Utah Journalism (Salt Lake City:  Utah State Historical Society, 1938), 90; Lorraine T. Washburn, “Culture in Dixie,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 29 (July 1961), 259-260; Mark A. Pendleton, “The Orderville United Order of Zion,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 7 (October 1939), 151

Locations:  John A. Israelson’s papers, Special Collections and Archives, Utah State University, Logan, UT

The Little Girls’ Magazine (UT, 1879)

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Little Girls Magazine (UT, 1879)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: St. George, Utah

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol.1, No. 3, Nov. 12, 1879

Size and Format:  7.75 x 12.5 inches; one col.; pen and ink; 13 pp.

Editor/Publisher:  J.A. Ivins, editor (1879), on behalf of the Young Ladies Mutual Improvement Association

Title Changes and Continuation:  Preceded by The Young Ladies Diadem

General Description and Notes:

The paper’s motto was “Perseverance conquers all things.”  The pages are filled with moralistic encouragement for young girls to have proper manners, to look for men who are moral and honest, to exercise their intellectual abilities (not to be idle), etc.

Several items are addressed “to the little girls of our association.”  Vol. 1, No. 3, includes two editorials, True Nobility, House-keeping, Kindness, Letters from Aunt Lou, Good Manners, Prayer, Cheerfulness, My Attendance at these meetings, To [sic] Late, and Cheerfulness at Home.

The stories appear to have been written by the young girls of the mutual improvement association and some of the elder women advisers.

Information Sources:               

Bibliography:  None

Locations: Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City, UT (Mss A 1052)

The Little Chief (OK, 1899)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Darlington, Oklahoma

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan., 1899-Vol. 1, No. 3, Feb., 1899

Size and Format:  Four page, two columns, handwritten and mimeographed

Editor/Publisher:  Rev. W.M. Wellman, pastor, Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians Congregational Mission (1899)

Title Changes and Continuations:  None

General Description and Notes:

According to Littlefield and Parins, The Little Chief served as the mission’s promotional paper.  It was “devoted to the interests of the Christian work now being done among the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians in general and to the Congregational Mission in particular.”  The paper contained appeals to donors outside the mission community and reported the “progress” of the Indians toward Christianity.  The paper also published tribal statistics, church news, inspirational statements and other news of activities related to the mission community.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  David F. Littlefield, Jr. and James W. Parins,  American Indian andAlaskaNative Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 (Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1984), 247-248

Locations:  OkMuB-J

The Knowledge Seeker (UT, 1884)

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Knowledge Seeker (UT, 1884)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Hyrum, Utah

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 4, No. 2, October 24, 1884, Vol. 4, No. 2, October 24, 1884

Size and Format:  Ledger (7 3/4 x 12+)

Editor/Publisher:  H.S. Allen (Vol. 4, No. 2); multiple authors, editors from the Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Association of Hyrum

Title Changes and Continuation:  See related publications, THE EDUCATOR, THE EVENING STAR, A MANUSCRIPT PAPER and YOUNG LADIES THOUGHTS; among the  many papers published by the Young Men and Young Ladies Mutual Improvement Societies in Utah

General Description and Notes:

According to Alter, the Young Men’s and Young Ladies’ Mutual Improvement Associations of Hyrum published weekly literary journals largely in the interests and for the entertainment of their members during the late 1880s.  The publications carried news, religious items and weather reports.

“The Knowledge Seeker” was published by the Young Men; “The Young Ladies Thoughts” and “The Evening Star” were published by the Young Ladies.  These papers appeared under various editors, since officers in these organizations changed regularly.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  J. Cecil Alter, Early Utah Journalism (Salt Lake City:  Utah State Historical Society, 1938), 90; Lorraine T. Washburn, “Culture in Dixie,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 29 (July 1961), 259-260; Mark A. Pendleton, “The Orderville United Order of Zion,” Utah Historical Quarterly, 7 (October 1939), 151.

Locations:  John A. Israelsen’s (1886-1965) papers, Special Collections and Archives, Utah State University, Logan, U;  Mormon Archives, Salt Lake City, UT

Kamloops Wawa (BC, 1891-1905)

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Kamloops Wawa (BC, 1891-1905)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

Frequency:  Irregular

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, May 2, 1891-Vol.14, No. 1, 1905; Nos. 1-213

Size and Format:  Text largely in shorthand of Chinook jargon; three columns; small format; copies mimeographed

Editor/Publisher:  Father LeJeune

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

Kamloops Wawa (BC, 1891-1905 )

This newspaper was published in Kamloops, British Columbia between 1891 and 1905 in a Chinook script developed by Father LeJeune.  The paper was handwritten then mimeographed.

The first page’s three columns are each written in a different script.  The first transliterates the Chinookan script of column two and column three translates both into English.  Column three reads:

“This paper is named Kamloops Wawa.  It is born just now.  It wants to appear and speak every week, to all who want to learn to write fast.  No matter if they be white men.”

[Note: The box containing the Kamloops Wawa includes separately paged inserts in various languages with duplicate numbering.  Also includes:  The Kamloops phonographer, no. 4 (Oct. 1892); circular (2 pp.):  Coldwater, Aug. 24, 1892; printed letter dated April 1, 1892 in French.  Five unidentified fragments;  2 pp. leaflet, at head of paper, the Kamloops Wawa symbols, on back, “the Duployan phonetic alphabet complete”; 2 copies (4 pp.) of the Chinook shorthand; pp. 49-80 ith chapter headings, “Stations of the Cross”,  “Preparation for confession”, “Act of miracle,” “Monseigneur Laurence”, “Fruitless temptation,” etc.]

Kamloops Wawa (BC, 1891-1905)

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  James C. Pillings, Bibliography of the Chinookan Languages, Bulletin 15 (Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, 1893), pp. 46-47; Pillings, Bibliography of the Salishan Language, Bulletin 16 (Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, 1893), p. 38.

Locations:  McFarlin Library, Special Collections, University of Tulsa

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