Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások (HUN, 1836)

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Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások (HUN, 1836)

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Pest (across the Danube from Buda [comprising modern Budapest]), Hungary

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  At least one extant copy:  December 19, 1836

Size and Format:  Folio, single column

Editor/Publisher:  Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894)

Title Changes and Continuation:  (English: Municipal Government Report) also published Országgyűlési tudósítások or Parlimentary Report

General Description and Notes:

Lajos Kossuth (1802-94), editor of this handwritten newspaper, is one of Hungary’s most famous lawyers, journalists, Protestants, and national heroes, who challenged the Habsburg Empire’s Roman Catholic dynasty and fought for the independence for his country.

Hungarian nationalism, fueled in part by Protestant chaffing under the Habsburg’s Roman Catholic-leaning policies, increased early in the 19th century. Certain reforms were introduced: the replacement of Latin, the official language of administration, with Hungarian; a law allowing serfs alternative means of discharging their feudal duties; and increased Hungarian representation in the Council of State in Vienna. For nationalists, the reforms were too few and too late. The Hungarian Diet rose up to defy the emperor just as a wave of more radical revolutions swept Europe.

Lajos Kossuth ( 1802-94)

Kossuth, raised a Lutheran and studied at a Calvinist university, had served as a reporter on Diet proceedings. A growing readership soon prodded him to publish a gazette (Országgyűlési tudósítások; Parlimentary Report) in direct defiance of the government. The Habsburg government, fearing further spread of popular dissent, banned all printed reports. However, the popularity of Kossuth’s reports led nationalists groups to circulate them in manuscript form. Kossuth organized a group to act like a medieval “scriptorium,” which hand lettered the papers and distributed them clandestinely. Because of his journalistic efforts and  leadership in the nationalist movement, Kossuth was imprisoned by the Habsburgs on Castle Hill for three years (1837-40).

In the 1848 uprising, the Hungarians hastily formed a national defense commission and moved the administrative seat of government from Pest to Debrecen, where Kossuth was elected leader. The parliament declared Hungary’s full independence and rejected the authority of the Habsburgs over the country. The nation’s new freedom was short-lived, however.

The new Habsburg emperor, Franz Joseph (the end of whose reign in 1916 precipitated the First World War), sent in troops with assistance from Russian tsar Nicholas I. The nationalist partisans were defeated by August 1849 and martial law was declared. The Habsburg reprisals were brutal. Most of the nationalist leaders were summarily executed.  Kossuth went into exile in Turkey.

Kossuth is still hailed today by Hungarians as a national liberator. His name is a symbol of independence from foreign domination and was quietly invoked throughout the Soviet era.

(An interesting aside and coincidence: while writing this entry, I learned that Archduke (Crown Prince) Otto von Habsburg, son of the last Austro-Hungarian emperor Charles, died July 4, 2011, at age 98.)

Information Sources:

Bibliography: See hungaria.org. This site includes the following bibliography:

Authentic Life of His Excellency Louis Kossuth, Governor of Hungary: His Progress From His Childhood to His Overthrow by the Combined Armies of Austria and Russia, With a Full Report of the Speeches Delivered in England. . .. London: Bradbury & Evans, 1851. 136 p.
Deák, István. The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848-1849. NY: Columbia U, 1979. 415 p.
De Puy, Henry W. Kossuth and His Generals: With a Brief History of Hungary, Select Speeches of Kossuth, etc. Buffalo: Phinney, 1852. 408 p.
Kossuth and the Hungarian War: Comprising a Complete History of the Late Struggle of the Hungarians For Liberty: . . .. New Haven, CT: Mansfield, 1852. 288 p.
Kossuth, Lajos. Kossuth’s First Speech in Faneuil Hall, Thursday Evening, April 29, 1852. Boston: Dir Old South Work, 1902. 20 p.
Officer of the Army. The Life and Achievements of Gov. Louis Kossuth, and a Complete History of the Late Hungarian War of Independence. NY: Hutchinson, 1852. 56 p.
Spencer, Donald S. Louis Kossuth and Young America: A Study of Sectionalism and Foreign Policy 1848-1852. Columbia: U of MO, 1977.
Whitridge, Arnold. Men in Crisis; the Revolutions of 1848. NY: Scribner’s, 1949. 364 p.

Link: Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások, Lajos Kossuth (Wikipedia)

Locations:  National Archives, Budapest, Hungary

Politische Richter (WI, 1860)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Burlington, WI?

Frequency:  Likely weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  Feb.-Apr.? 1860

Size and Format:  two pages of foolscap

Editor/Publisher:  Mathias Bachmayer

Title Changes and Continuation:  The exact title is uncertain; “Political Judge” is the translation.

General Description and Notes:

In German.  The paper is known only from mentions in the Burlington Gazette of March 20, 1860, ” . . . the paper is hand copied.  It is free and devoted to calling out the Catholic church building committee and local news.” and Apr. 4, 1860, “number twelve is received.  It covers two pages of foolscap.”  The exact title is uncertain; that given above is a translation from the English given in the Gazette.

Information Sources:         

Bibliography:  Burlington Gazette, March 20, 1860 and April 4, 1860; information from James P. Danky, Newspapers and Periodicals Librarian, The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

Locations:  No copies are known.

The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

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The Musalman (IND, 1927-present)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Chennai, India

Frequency:  Daily

Volume and Issue Data:  Published since 1927, circulation approx. 21,000

Size and Format:  Broadsheet folded to make four pages; Urdu language publication; handwritten, then printed

Editor/Publisher:  Editor-in-Chief Syed Arifullah (youngest son of former editor Syed Fazlulla)

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

According to Wired Magazine, “the fax machine on 76-year-old Editor-in-Chief Syed Fazlulla’s [died April 26, 2008] crowded desk is by far the most sophisticated technology in the room.”

“Fazlulla, who is deep into creating the next issue of the handcrafted The Musalman daily newspaper, frowns as he deciphers the handwriting and searches for a cover story. After some consideration, he passes the page to his brother who translates it into Urdu. He in turn sends the text to the back room where writers take calligraphy quills in hand and begin.

“Here in the shadow of the Wallajah Mosque, a team of six puts out this hand-penned paper. Four of them are katibs — writers dedicated to the ancient art of Urdu calligraphy. It takes three hours using a pen, ink and ruler to transform a sheet of paper into news and art.”

According to Iran Radio Islam, the paper, whose name means “The Muslim,”

is a broadsheet folded to make four pages. The front page has local and national news. Page two has international news and editorials. Page three contains Hadith, quotes from the Qur’an and (incongruously) sports. The last page has “everything”, says Arifullah, with a focus on local news. There are ads from local businesses, “exhibitions, circus, new products”, and even Aligarh Muslim University.

News comes in from part-time reporters in different cities, once by fax, now also email. “We are not able to afford” full-time Urdu reporters, the editor says, so the material often comes in English. Three translators turn it into Urdu. The katibs then write the copy out on paper with quills and ink, three hours per page, and paste all the items on a form. If a mistake is made or a news update arrives, the page is rewritten. The form is turned into a negative, which is used to make the plate for printing.

The Wired magazine reporter observed that the paper’s

“. . . office is a center for the South Indian Muslim community and hosts a stream of renowned poets, religious leaders and royalty who contribute to the pages, or just hang out, drink chai and recite their most recent works to the staff. The Musalman publishes Urdu poetry and messages on devotion to God and communal harmony daily.

The newspaper’s content is not exactly hard-hitting. It covers the basics of local politics and the writers translate stories from English papers into Urdu. Still, the paper is widely read and appreciated by Muslims in Tripplicane and Chennai where the paper has a circulation of 20,000.

While the Musalman is a Muslim newspaper, it is a hub of South Asian liberalism, employing both women and non-Muslims. Half the katibs are women and the chief reporter is Hindu. Staff members say that Indira Gandhi, former prime minister of India, once called the business the epitome of what modern India should be.

The Urdu language is, according to Wired, “similar to spoken Hindi, Urdu is a mixture of Arabic, Persian and local Indian languages. It originated in the army camps of Muslim rulers in Delhi and has been the language of poets and artists because its rich roots draw on so many traditions across various cultures.”

But when British colonizers swept across India importing printing presses and English, Urdu ceased to be the official court language. It was spoken primarily by the Muslim community, but katibs could still make a living because no Urdu typeface existed.

That changed in 1997 with the first widely circulated Urdu computer font. Nowadays, people learn to read and write Urdu mostly as a hobby.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Scott Carney, “A Handwritten Daily Paper in India Faces the Digital Future,” Wired (magazine), July 6, 2007; Iran Radio Islam, “The Musalman: The Last Hand Printed Newspaper in India,” IRIB World Service-English, May 26, 2011.

Locations:  Unknown (Chennai, India)

Jong Transvaal [Afrikaans: Young Transvaal] (RSA, 1901)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: South Africa

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: November 1901 (during Anglo-Boer War)

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  J. Mariewe

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

What follows are selections, roughly translated, from Paul Zietsman’s May 2002 article in Die Berger, “Seldsame Boerekoerant in Amsterdamse argief gevind,” describing the Jong Transvaal or Young Transvaal:

When I was recently in the South African Nederlandsch Vereeniging, on the Keizersgracht, Amsterdam, doing research, I found files on the rare first edition of a youth paper from among the Western Transvaal commandos of the Anglo-Boer War on the Transvaal. This edition appeared in November 1901.

The newspaper, hand-written, copied and distributed an edition of twenty, but the editors, the readers asked for the widest possible circulation and officers called on it to be read among the Boer commandos.

The editor was the Dutchman J. Mariewe, but between the lines it appears that Young Transvaal was a team effort.

The newspaper reflects the public mind of the people fighting in the Western Transvaal border zone of  Gen. Koos de la Rey’s battle field at this time of war. It reveals what life was like for people in the remote region, who also had access to  British newspapers like The Times, including the larger events and repercussions at the height of the Anglo-Boer War.

The inspiration that fueled the bitter rivalry radiates from every page of Young Transvaal. “True to death” was the newspaper’s motto.

The headquarters “The level field” and “Abonnementprijis (subscription): nil!” Shows a fine sense of humor. An “advertisement” with the same tongue in cheek look sought “typesetters,” “printers” and administrative clerks at fabulous salaries!

“To our fellow citizens” was the first introductory article which explained the paper’s editorial policies, including:  “In summary form wishes to all facts that come to our knowledge, on, taking aim at truth:”

And the name? “We gave this leaflet Young Transvaal this name because we were being prophetic.”

“It seems to us that this war is rejuvenating the Republic, so it appeared we are entering a new life, free from all diseases and germs that interfere with a healthy and vigorous life.”  The editors added that this “rejuvenating” of the Afrikaner life actually stretched beyond Transvaal .

In a later report, an article expanded on the Young Transvaal character. The young men were known before the war as progressives, whom the conservatives  (or Kruger Men) branded traitors, because they wound sites in the body is shown it is now their real leaders.

“Who are we men?” asked the Young Transvaal. “Probably are still a few of the old school among us, but for the rest we can show to a whole new staff officers, men who earlier in the background stood. And Louis Botha Koos de la Rey was the most prominent of the new officers and leaders of the anti-war Kruger men.”

“With them, a new time has come,” said Young Transvaal. “Let us all follow them united so that we can do great things.”

What’s the public outrage made above, but they also found laughable was Kitchener’s verbanningsdreigement. The editors wrote under the headline “Bannishment” (sic). “The rain of the English side almost as much as proclamations bombs.”

“Especially the last papierbom attract much attention.”

This deal on Kitchener’s proclamation of August 7, 1901 that the Boer officers who do not surrender 15 September, exiled and their property would be confiscated.

Young Transvaal refers to the excellent manner in which “our” leaders answered the proclamation and the unfavorable review of the European press. “In Amsterdam, a large meeting that took place in strong language against the proclamation is protested.”

Young Transvaal emphasized that the Transvaal proclamation contrary to the “General” Law and editors in any event in the history of people not familiar with “the defeated party punished with exile because his independence to the limit defense.”

Besides, the farmers have not yet been defeated. “Well, the enemy occupied the main towns, but the country is our lord and master. “The Republican government is still functioning and acting magistrates to maintain law and order in the Transvaal districts.”

“And because we each foot of the heritage of our fathers defended; because we remain faithful to the oath and duty, because we do not want to bend before the gods of gold, because we died on the battlefield over slawejuk we therefore prefer to ever the patriotic soil banned?”

In another reported Transvaal Young writes that it appears General (Lord) Methuen him on his journeys through the western Transvaal “primarily aims to vulnerable women and children to capture and destroy food supplies.”

“Why he started we offered him, refused?” Wonder the newspaper. “Was it for fear of possible heavy losses of material, dead and wounded, so that in the report to the Department of War would not only show that a small number of people in the field, but an organized citizens Strydmag the cause of the fatherland faithful?”

Young Transvaal was not completely spot on the Western Transvaal’s battle skills, as would soon be evident from Gen. Koos de la Rey’s spectacular victory over Methuen in Tweebosch between Sannieshof and De la Reyville on March 27, 1902, in which the wounded Methuen the dubious distinction bestowed that he was the only British general was during the war in Boer hands case it.

Young Transvaal underline the unreliable statistics as far as British casualties on the Boer side. According to a British newspaper that the British abandoned camp was found, the number of Boers in the Battle of Renosterfontein killed, more than doubled and the optimum is the allegation that General. Lemmer and sergeant under Joubert fell. Lemmer was wounded, but already back in the field and in the Marico Commando was nobody with the name sergeant Joubert not.

Under the headline “Domestic,” the newspaper reported that women from the concentration “refugee camp” at Mafeking escaped and reported very many deaths, especially among children. “We desire that a thorough investigation be undertaken.”

Thanks to Emily Hophouse’s publication in Britain of the cruel inhumanity of the concentration camps were already at that time such an investigation in progress by the Ladies Committee of which Britain sent out, although the superior high class British ladies were anything but objective. One of the most revered women wanted to know why the Boer women complained that their beds are not in the camps had not, because before the war, the Boers would not sleep on beds.

A story that quite upset the Young Transvaal  was that [British] Lord Kitchener complained to the [Boer] Commandant-General (Louis Botha) that people in the Battle of Vlakfontein southwest of Lichtenburg on 28 May 1901 and “wounded” hand suppers shot. Kitchener also claimed that “slightly wounded civilians were crawling around on the battlefield on all fours looking for wounded British to capture.”

Young Transvaal reported that the military authorities on the Boer side strictly investigated the accusation and  showed from various affidavits that Kitchener’s accusations were based on a misunderstanding.

The Commandant General, however, ordered that any citizen who committed criminal trespass immediately appear before a court martial.

Finally, Young Transvaal contains also a tongue-in-cheek ad that is actually an ironic commentary on the host’s diet is hunger. It reads: “The undersigned has the honor of the revered public in the ravines to notify its valley in Moepelkloof a restaurant opened. The following dishes were always on hand:

Boiled whole maize,  Heroic corn, Spy meal,  Potatoes imported from Mud River, Pudding a la Methuen, Dough boy-storm rider dumplings, Wheat Coffee currency, using black color and bitter taste.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography: Paul Zietsman, “Seldsame Boerekoerant in Amsterdamse argief gevind,” Die Burger (May 4, 2002); South Africa’s Yesterdays (Reader’s Digest Association South Africa, 1981), p. 2o.

Locations:  South African Nederlandsch Vereeniging, Keizersgracht, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Chinese News (NY, 1894-?)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  New York, NY

Frequency: Unknown, but multiple copies produced

Volume and Issue Data:  1894, perhaps longer

Size and Format:  Pen and ink, hand lettered Chinese characters

Editor/Publisher:  William J. Hanley & Steve Linguard

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to the Library of  Congress, the description based on: No. 8 (Aug. 10, 1894). Red background with hand lettered in Chinese

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Links: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn2004060426/

Locations:  New York State Rgn, Albany, NY

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