Willow Creek Journal (NE, 1873)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Willow Creek Farm, Waverly, Nebraska

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 1, n.d.; author apparently intended to publish more:  No. 1 ends a serialized story with “to be continued”

Size and Format:  Ledger paper, 7.5 x 12 inches; pen and ink; 2 cols., 2 pp.

Editor/Publisher:  Charles A. Pierce, “Editor and Proprietor”

Title Changes and Continuations:  Immediate continuation of the March 1873 (Vol. 1, No. 4) issue of The Experiment

General Description and Notes:

The Willow Creek Journal is an immediate continuation of The Experiment, which was published March 1873.

The Journal contains Chapters 7 and 8 of “Johnny’s Adventures or the life of a boy among the Indians,” a serial story whose first six chapters appeared in The Experiment.  Unlike The Experiment, The Journal‘s first number contains only this story.  A headline for an “Editorial” appears over a single seven inch blank column, but no other news, advertisements or stories appear in the issue.  Only the “Terms” are published on page one:  “One contribution for each number of the paper.”

The motto of the Journal is the same as The Experiment’s, “Progress and Perseverance.”  Both newspapers are self-described as “A family paper, devoted to Literature, Agriculture, News, Family affairs, and General Improvement.”

One of the student editors, Charles A. Pierce, was the son of Charles W. Pierce, a civil war veteran, who was transferred to Demopolis, Alabama in 1866 as a major with the Freedman’s Bureau and District commander of western Alabama.  The senior Pierce served one term in the 41st Congress from Alabama’s fourth district in 1867.  I was during this time that his son, Charles A., began his first handwritten newspaper, The Experiment, at Oakland Hall, Chunchula, Alabama.  In 1872 the family moved to Waverly, Nebraska, where The Experiment, and its successor, Willow Creek Journal were published by Charles A. in 1873.  The Casket appeared in Nebraska in 1875 as a school effort, no doubt with the help of Charles A.

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations: Charles W. Pierce Papers, Ms. 554, Nebraska State Historical Society, State Archives, Lincoln, NB,

The Wild Goose: A Collection of Ocean Waifs (AUS, 1867)

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The Wild Goose: A Collection of Ocean Waifs (AUS, 1867)
The Wild Goose: A Collection of Ocean Waifs (AUS, 1867)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Shipboard the Hougoumont, the last ship to transport convicts from England to Fremantle, Australia

Frequency:  Seven issues of the newspaper were produced, each issue carefully laid out and decorated by hand. Only one copy of each issue was made, which was then read to the convicts aloud.

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, no. 1-7, 9 Nov. – 21 Dec. 1867

Size and Format:  Ledger (7 3/4 x 12+)

Editor/Publisher:  Irish “Fenian prisoners:” John Flood, John Boyle O’Reilly and John Casey

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

The Wild Goose was, according to a Wikipedia article, a

“handwritten newspaper created in late 1867 by Fenian prisoners aboard the Hougoumont, the last ship to transport convicts to Australia.

“Seven issues of the newspaper were produced, each issue carefully laid out and decorated by hand. Only one copy of each issue was made, which was then read to the convicts aloud. The aim was to provide entertainment and encouragement aboard the ship during its long and arduous voyage to Fremantle. The title refers to the Wild Geese: the Irish soldiers who had left to serve in continental European armies since the 16th century.

“The major contributors were John Flood, John Boyle O’Reilly and John Casey.

Irish Fenian Volunteer Poster (re. Wild Goose [AUS, 1867])
Irish Fenian Volunteer Poster (re. Wild Goose [AUS, 1867])

The documents provide a fascinating insight into life aboard ship. The documents contain songs, stories, articles, advice, poems, and even comedy. In addition to the diaries of Denis Cashman and the journals of John Casey and Thomas McCarthy Fennell, the journey of the Hougoumont was well recorded.

“One passage describes Australia and its history with more than a little sarcasm:

“This great continent of the south, having been discovered by some Dutch skipper and his crew, somewhere between the 1st and 9th centuries of the Christian era, was, in consequence taken possession of by the government of Great Britain, in accordance with that just and equitable maxim, “What’s yours is mine; what’s mine is my own.” That magnanimous government in the kindly exuberance of their feelings, have placed a large portion of that immense tract of country called Australia at our disposal. Generously defraying all expenses incurred on our way to it, and providing retreats for us there to secure us from the inclemency of the seasons…

“All seven issues survive, and were passed on by John Flood’s granddaughter to the Mitchell Library in 1967. The papers are bound into one book and are now part of the State Library of New South Wales collection.”John Boyle O’Reilly penned several poems for the paper, including The Flying Dutchman and The Old School Clock.

“On 9 September 2005, a memorial was unveiled at Rockingham beach to commemorate the Catalpa rescue. The memorial is a large statue of six Wild Geese.”

According to the Freemantle (Australia) Prison historical website,

“The Fenian movement, or Irish Republican Brotherhood, was a secret society that flourished during the 1860s. Its activities included an armed rebellion against British rule in Ireland, which failed for a number of reasons. In 1865 hundreds of men were arrested in Ireland on suspicion of complicity. There were two elements amongst the men charged and convicted: those who were civilians, and those who were currently serving in the British military services. The civilian element were treated as political prisoners, whilst the military element were treated as ordinary criminals. In 1869 the civilian element were granted clemency and freed, whilst such consideration was denied the military element (Erickson pp.115-156).

John Boyle O’Reilly [emphasis added] was an NCO in the 10th Hussars (the prestigious regiment of the Prince of Wales) when arrested in 1866 for assisting fellow soldiers to join the rebellious Fenian movement. Found guilty at his court martial, his death sentence was commuted to one of 20 year’s penal servitude which automatically meant transportation (anyone sentenced to seven years or more was transported).

“He sailed, along with 280 other convicts — 62 of them Fenians — on board the Hougoumont from Portland in October 1867. They arrived at Fremantle in January 1868, the last convicts to be sent to Western Australia. Their arrival also signalled the end of the convict era in Australia.”

Information Sources:                            

Bibliography:  Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wild_Goose;  Laubenstein, William J. The Emerald Whaler London: Deutsch, 1961; Stevens, Peter F., The Voyage of the Catalpa (ISBN 1-84212-651-2); Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, 1969, volume LXXIV; http://www.fremantleprison.com.au/History/theconvictera/characters/thefenians/Pages/default.aspx

Locations:  Wikipedia: “All seven issues survive, and were passed on by John Flood’s granddaughter to the Mitchell Library in 1967. The papers are bound into one book and are now part of the State Library of New South Wales collection.”

Wawa, Kamloops (BC, 1891-1905)

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See the Kamloops Wawa

The Voice of Refugees (NAM, 2006)

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The Voice of Refugees (NAM, 2006)

The Voice of Refugees (NAM, 2006)

Ian Macllelan, in “Kakuma Refugee Camp Free Press,” writes, “In Osire Refugee Camp, Namibia, The Voice of Refugees was a handwritten newspaper that was snuck out of the camp and then spread around to shed light on what happens there. The Namibian Government and UNHCR shut down the venture before long.”


“If a free press spreads among the hundreds of camps in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and appears on the World Wide Web, indeed a feedback mechanism will have been established. We know of only one other newspaper, TheVoice of Refugees, produced in Osiri Camp in Namibia, but it is not using modern information technology.”


The Victoria Times (NZ, 1841)

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Victoria Times (NZ, 1841)

Victoria Times (NZ, 1841)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Wellington, NZ

Frequency: Library reports only one issue, but 500 copies (lithographed)

Volume and Issue Data:  Extant copy says “No. 1, September 8, 1841” (NZ library site says “15 September 1841”)

Size and Format: Size (unknown), but handwritten text was lithographed

Editor/Publisher:  Thomas Bluett and Jacob Jones

Title Changes and Continuation:  None (possibly related the New Zealand Gazette)

General Description and Notes:

According to the National Library of New Zealand website, “The Victoria Times was only published once but is noteworthy for several reasons; it was Wellington’s second earliest paper, it was lithographed rather than letter-pressed and it contains a plan of Wellington on the back page. The plan was hand-coloured in some issues although not the one presented here.

The Victoria Times was published by Thomas Bluett and Jacob Jones. They had previously produced lithographs for the New Zealand Company, including a chart of Port Nicholson that’s now recognized as New Zealand’s first lithograph. Given that the Company had a strong interest in Wellington’s other newspaper, the New Zealand Gazette, the decision to publish a rival paper seems reckless. And is presumably one of the reasons why the paper failed to appear again. Another possible reason for the paper’s brief life was that the partnership of Bluett and Jones did not endure. Jones announced its dissolution in the Gazette in late 1841.

“Bluett moved to Tasmania. Records show him operating a lithographic firm in Hobart in 1842. Examples of his work are held in various archives in Australia. He died in England in 1846.”

According to the Library Tech NZ site, “Many of you will know that five hundred copies of the first issue of the Victoria Times were published in Wellington on 15 September 1841. These were lithographed, rather than letter-pressed like most newspapers.

“The first three pages are handwritten text, and the last is a fascinating plan of Wellington in 1841. Note that Lambton Quay is actually a quay (i.e. constructed along the edge of a body of water) and that Basin Reserve is a “proposed basin” linked to the water by a “proposed canal”. In some issues (but not ours) the map was hand-coloured. This was not an economical way to run a newspaper, apparently, as the first issue was also the last.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations: National Library of New Zealand (see Papers Past: Victoria Times)

Vermont Autograph and Remarker (VT, 1834-67)


Publication History:

Place of Publication: Starksborough,Vermont

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: 1834-1867

Size and Format:  about 7′ x 4 l/2″

Editor/Publisher:  James Johns

Title Changes and Continuation:  According to the front page story in the Vermont Autograph and Remarker, the editor also wrote the Huntington Gazette when he was 13 years old (March 1810).  He altered the title of this paper “as fancy dictated.”

General Description and Notes:

The paper is very neatly written in scripted print.  On the first page James Johns writes:

“It cannot well escape the notice of an observing eye that the Autograph is, as the title indicates, a manuscript production, being executed with a pen by hand.  consequently it may well be supposed what is the fact, that such a mode of issue does not admit of multiplying copies like the press and types, one at a time being all that I undertake to get out at once.  This I am generally able to accomplish in little more than half a day with close application.  The matter is all written down on the columns directly from the dictates of my mind.  The papers’ so issued I mostly send off by mail to either publishers.”

According to the editor of the Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society, Vol. IV, No. 2 (New Series), 1936, pp 69-70, the editor of the Autograph, James John was born in Huntington, VT, September 26, 1797.

“As early as 1834, he pen-printed a newspaper, the Vermont Autograph and Remarker; each issue included five or six articles, totaling about fifteen hundred words–every letter printed by hand.  He continued the Autograph until three months before his death [1867, age 76].  His pen-printed material consists of historical items, essays, fiction, poems, and political statistics.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Robert W. G. Vail, “Bibliography of the Writings of James Johns,” Monograph on James Johns [The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America,  Vol. 27, Part 2, 1933]; cited in Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society, 1936, “James Johns, Vermont Pen Printer,” Vol. IV, No. 2, pages 69-71

Locations: Vermont Historical Society Library, Montpelier, VT;  Newspapers and Periodicals, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA

The Vepricula (UT, 1864-1865)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: St. George, Utah

Frequency:  Semi-monthly; twice a month over a period of 13 months

Volume and Issue Data: May 1864-June 1865

Size and Format:  3 columns, foolscap pages, four pages

Editor/Publisher:  Orson Pratt, Jr., George A. Bergen, Charles Lowell (C.L.) Walker, and Joseph Orton: all wrote under pen names (from Carter, p. 144)

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to Carter, The Vepricula or Little Bramble was issued twice a month over 13 months from May 1864 to June 1865. The four editors wrote under pen-names and each followed their own line of thought.  Pratt was Veritas, Bergen was Signor, Orton was Cerus, and Walker was Mark Whiz.  While these men planned the paper and developed their stories, they “hired some young women who were good  penmen, to write the paper, the script was so fine and yet so perfect that it is still very readable, except where time has dimmed the ink” (Carter, p. 144).

Content was organized under sections with heads such as “Readings,” “Hopes,” “Reflections,” “Reason and Faith,” “The Will,” etc.c

According to the Huntington Library, The Vepricula was the first manuscript newspaper published in St. George, Utah.

Facsimile copy at the Huntington, FAC 526.

According to Chad Flake (p.21) “Guglielma Gustaro Rossetti Sangioranni was an L.D.S. convert from . . .  He was also associated with Joseph Orton, George A. Bergen, and Orson Pratt in the publishing of the manuscript newspaper, the Veprecula, [sic] where he wrote under the pseudonym, “Ego.”  (cited in Andrew K. Larsen I Was Called to Dixie (SLC: Deseret New Press, 1961, p.422)

Cited in Checklist of Utah Newspapers in Holley, p.163, as Little Bramble, St. George, Washington County, 5/1864-6/15/1865; Editors: J. Orton, O. Pratt, Jr., G.A. Bergen, and C.L. Walker.

Related titles: Veprecula [sic], frequency: bi-weekly

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Kate B. Carter, ed.,  Journalism in Pioneer Days ( Salt Lake City:  Daughters of Utah Pioneers Historical Society, April 1943), pp. 139-168 (esp. 144-46); Andrew K. Larsen I Was Called to Dixie (Salt Lake City: Deseret New Press, 1961), p.422

Chad Flake, “Early Utah Journalism:  A Brief Summary,” in Utah’s Newspapers–Traces of Her Past, ed. by Robert P. Holley, Utah Newspaper Project, SLC–Marriott Library, 1984. p.21

Locations:  Facsimile, Manuscripts Division, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA

The Union Times (UT,1886-1887)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Union, Utah

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 5, No. 5 is dated Dec. 12, 1886 (p. 2); other dates include Feb. 20, 1887, Feb. 15, 1887, and Feb. 9, 1887.

Size and Format: 6.5 x 10.5 inches; single column

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

The paper is a Mormon publication. The lead story-editorial of Vol. 5, No. 5 begins with the question, “What are We Mormons a doing at the Present?” The answer:

“We are endeavoring to Keep the commandments of God as written in his holy word. To preach the Gospel to all the world, to inspire the hearts of Men with faith in nGod our Father, And in the atonement of Jesus and that wickedness may comme to an end . . . .”

Seems to be continuous entries with different dates, contributors names/letter signed (F.S., D.D.E. Jones, Orson Berrett, Fred Buxton, Henry C. Monteer). May have been a Young Men’s Improvement Society publication, but found no indication of that in the extant copies.

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Manuscripts, MS 605, University Libraries, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

Union Spy (VA, 1851)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Washington College, Lexington, Virginia

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 3, Friday, June 27, 1851

Size and Format:  7.75 x 12.5 inches; 4 pages, two columns per page

Editor/Publisher:  L. Neal and R. Houston

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

The paper was created and held at Washington & Lee University is misdated in their catalog. The “1857” looks reasonable on the masthead, but the editorial on page two, “The Next Presidency,” says that the presidential campaign “of 1852 is about to commence.” Thus it appears the correct date is 1851, not 1857.

The paper contains story stories, news briefs, editorials, “city and county news,” “foreign,” poetry, “scraps,” and an ad for “job writing.”

Extant copy is very clear and legible–except for the date!

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Rockbridge Historical Society. Guide to the Manuscripts Collection of the Rockbridge Historical Society on Permanent Deposit at the Washington and Lee University Library, Lexington, Virginia. Lexington, Va: The Society, 1989.

Locations:  Rockbridge Historical Society Collection, Special Collections, Leyburn Library, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA

The True Blue (MX, 1842)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Mexico City, Mexico; Castle Perote Prison, Santiago, Mexico

Frequency:  Weekly (for six weeks)

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 4, April 21, 1842

Size and Format:  Variable; 9 x 13 inches; two columns; written in cursive

Editor/Publisher:  “Simon Pure”

Title Changes and Continuation:  None


General Description and Notes:         

The True Blue was handwritten by Texan soldiers imprisoned in Mexico City.  According to a Texas State archivist, the newspaper was published as a “literary journal” by the 1842 Texan Santa Fe Expedition prisoners while in the Castle Santiago in Mexico City.  The prisoners were later moved to the Castle Perote near the coast.  At least six issues appeared.  The fourth issue, April 21, 1842, announced a “Ball” to be held in celebration of the Battle of San Jacinto, “a day ever to be remembered by Texans.”

The paper’s name appears in large, bold capital letters.

Information Sources:                               

Bibliography:  Bob Karolevitz, “Pen and Ink Newspapers of the Old West,” Frontier Times, 44:2 (Feb.-Mar., 1970), 31, 62; Robert F. Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West:  A Pictorial History of Journalism and Printing on the Frontier (New York:  Bonanza Books, 1969), p. 140; Workers of the Writers’ Program of the Work Projects Administration, Texas:  A Guide to the Lone Star State (New York:  Hastings House, 1940), 121.

Locations:  Vol. 1, Nos. 1 and 6 (original); Vol. 1, Nos. 1, 5 and 6 (photocopy) Texas State Library Archives, Austin, Texas

Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások (HUN, 1836)

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Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások (HUN, 1836)

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Pest (across the Danube from Buda [comprising modern Budapest]), Hungary

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  At least one extant copy:  December 19, 1836

Size and Format:  Folio, single column

Editor/Publisher:  Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894)

Title Changes and Continuation:  (English: Municipal Government Report) also published Országgyűlési tudósítások or Parlimentary Report

General Description and Notes:

Lajos Kossuth (1802-94), editor of this handwritten newspaper, is one of Hungary’s most famous lawyers, journalists, Protestants, and national heroes, who challenged the Habsburg Empire’s Roman Catholic dynasty and fought for the independence for his country.

Hungarian nationalism, fueled in part by Protestant chaffing under the Habsburg’s Roman Catholic-leaning policies, increased early in the 19th century. Certain reforms were introduced: the replacement of Latin, the official language of administration, with Hungarian; a law allowing serfs alternative means of discharging their feudal duties; and increased Hungarian representation in the Council of State in Vienna. For nationalists, the reforms were too few and too late. The Hungarian Diet rose up to defy the emperor just as a wave of more radical revolutions swept Europe.

Lajos Kossuth ( 1802-94)

Kossuth, raised a Lutheran and studied at a Calvinist university, had served as a reporter on Diet proceedings. A growing readership soon prodded him to publish a gazette (Országgyűlési tudósítások; Parlimentary Report) in direct defiance of the government. The Habsburg government, fearing further spread of popular dissent, banned all printed reports. However, the popularity of Kossuth’s reports led nationalists groups to circulate them in manuscript form. Kossuth organized a group to act like a medieval “scriptorium,” which hand lettered the papers and distributed them clandestinely. Because of his journalistic efforts and  leadership in the nationalist movement, Kossuth was imprisoned by the Habsburgs on Castle Hill for three years (1837-40).

In the 1848 uprising, the Hungarians hastily formed a national defense commission and moved the administrative seat of government from Pest to Debrecen, where Kossuth was elected leader. The parliament declared Hungary’s full independence and rejected the authority of the Habsburgs over the country. The nation’s new freedom was short-lived, however.

The new Habsburg emperor, Franz Joseph (the end of whose reign in 1916 precipitated the First World War), sent in troops with assistance from Russian tsar Nicholas I. The nationalist partisans were defeated by August 1849 and martial law was declared. The Habsburg reprisals were brutal. Most of the nationalist leaders were summarily executed.  Kossuth went into exile in Turkey.

Kossuth is still hailed today by Hungarians as a national liberator. His name is a symbol of independence from foreign domination and was quietly invoked throughout the Soviet era.

(An interesting aside and coincidence: while writing this entry, I learned that Archduke (Crown Prince) Otto von Habsburg, son of the last Austro-Hungarian emperor Charles, died July 4, 2011, at age 98.)

Information Sources:

Bibliography: See hungaria.org. This site includes the following bibliography:

Authentic Life of His Excellency Louis Kossuth, Governor of Hungary: His Progress From His Childhood to His Overthrow by the Combined Armies of Austria and Russia, With a Full Report of the Speeches Delivered in England. . .. London: Bradbury & Evans, 1851. 136 p.
Deák, István. The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848-1849. NY: Columbia U, 1979. 415 p.
De Puy, Henry W. Kossuth and His Generals: With a Brief History of Hungary, Select Speeches of Kossuth, etc. Buffalo: Phinney, 1852. 408 p.
Kossuth and the Hungarian War: Comprising a Complete History of the Late Struggle of the Hungarians For Liberty: . . .. New Haven, CT: Mansfield, 1852. 288 p.
Kossuth, Lajos. Kossuth’s First Speech in Faneuil Hall, Thursday Evening, April 29, 1852. Boston: Dir Old South Work, 1902. 20 p.
Officer of the Army. The Life and Achievements of Gov. Louis Kossuth, and a Complete History of the Late Hungarian War of Independence. NY: Hutchinson, 1852. 56 p.
Spencer, Donald S. Louis Kossuth and Young America: A Study of Sectionalism and Foreign Policy 1848-1852. Columbia: U of MO, 1977.
Whitridge, Arnold. Men in Crisis; the Revolutions of 1848. NY: Scribner’s, 1949. 364 p.

Link: Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások, Lajos Kossuth (Wikipedia)

Locations:  National Archives, Budapest, Hungary

Tancopanican Chronicle (DE, 1823-1824)

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Publication History: 

Place of Publication: DuPont family home, Delaware

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Saturday, Sept. 20th, 1823.  Twelve issues, 1823-24.

Size and Format:  Approx. 4 pages each; approximately 7.5 x 10 inches

Editor/Publisher:  “Two members of the blue stocking club;” according to Marjorie G. McNinch, of the Hagley Museum and Library Manuscripts and Archives Department,  the paper is “written in the hand of Victorine (du Pont) Bauduy, but compiled with the help of her sisters Eleuthera and Sophie”

Title Changes and Continuation:  Tancopanican Chronicle, 1830-1834; publication for the DuPont Family celebration in 1950.

“Scenes on the Tancopanican” contains humorous watercolor sketches of life in the household of E.I. duPont, 1827 and undated.  It is handwritten, but not a newspaper (photocopy included).

General Description and Notes:

Presumably written in the hand of Victorine (du Pont) Bauduy, but compiled with the help of her sisters Eleuthera and Sophie.  These are the children of the founding member of the DuPont family, French emigrants who came to Delaware in 1800.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Riggs Guide to Manuscripts, The Winterthur Manuscripts, Group 6, Papers of Victorine (du Pont) Bauduy, page 282; Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, Sophie du Pont; A Young Lady in America.  Sketches, Diaries, & Letters 1823-1833 (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers)

Locations:  Accession 471, Papers of Louis Crowninshield, describes Tancopanican chronicle, 1830-1834, (Wilmington, 1949).  A typescript of the original volumes is in Accession 428.

The Winterthur Manuscripts, Group 9 Papers of Sophie M. duPont, page 530, referring only to “Scenes on the Tancopanican”

Hagley Museum and Library, du Pont papers, Wilmington, DE:  http://www.hagley.org/library/

The Tampa Gouger (FL, 1831)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:   “Our Shop,” “Tampa Bay” (presumably FL; elsewhere in the paper reference is made to [St.?] Petersburg  and Russia, but it may have been an attempt at humor under “Foreign Intelligence”)

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Monday, June 1831, Vol 1., No. 1.

Size and Format:  Large newssheet, 4 pages

Editor/Publisher:  “Three of Us!”  Washington Hood (1808-1840), a surveyor, architect and engineer, possibly in his hand

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes: 

Issue dated “Monday, June 1831”  (Vol. 1, No. 1) carries the motto, “I gouge, Thou gougest, He gouges!”  The paper’s lead column reads:

“In presenting to its patrons the first number of the Gouger, we wish it expressly, distinctly, emphatically, and unequivocally understood that we totally, entirely and absolutely disclaim all allegiances, dependence , fealty, obligation or subservience to any body or bodies civil, military, or political–and that we are not in any sence or meaning, either direct or by inference or by consternation [?] the public’s. [signed] Humble servants, The US Three.

Below the fold, the column continues with an explanation of the publications purpose and character.

“We beg it, moreover, to be expressly understood by all those who may enjoy the high and distinguished privileges of drawing instruction, edification, and happiness from the rich, rare, racy, and diversified columns of the Gouger, that we hold it to be the standard of morals and manners, and the undisputed and indisputable umpire and director of wit, humour, taste, literature and sciences.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  The Washington Hood Collection in the Downs Collection, Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera, The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, DE

Swan River Daily Police News (MB, 1876)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Swan River, Manitoba, Canada

Frequency:  Daily? Despite the title, actual duration and frequency are unknown

Volume and Issue Data: April 27, 1876

Size and Format:  Variable; one page; 24 x 36 inches; 22 x 32.5 inches

Editor/Publisher:  North West Mounted Police personnel

Title Changes and Continuation:  See also Weekly Critic, Dufferin, Manitoba

General Description and Notes:

According to Loveridge, the Daily Police News and Dufferin Weekly Critic represented the first efforts at rural journalism at Swan River and Fort Dufferin by North West Mounted Police in 1875 and 1876.  These may have been the earliest Manitoba newspapers outside Winnipeg.  Loveridge calls them “newsletters” and distinguishes them from “true newspapers.”

Information Sources:          

Bibliography:  D.M. Loveridge, A Historical Directory of Manitoba Newspapers, 1859-1978 (Winnipeg:  University of Manitoba Press, 1978), pp. 5, 95

Locations:  Legislative Library, Culture, Heritage and Citizenship, Winnipeg, Manitoba; April 27, 1876:  Saskatchewan Archives, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

The Students Gazette (PA, 1777-1778)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Friends Latin School (later William Penn Charter School), Philadelphia, PA

Frequency:  Unknown; first issue: “The great Want of a Weekly Newspaper and the Encouragement they formerly met with from you has induced me to publish the Students Gazette.”

Volume and Issue Data:  23 issues, 1777-8; first issue: June 11, 1777

Size and Format:  Half sheet (roughly 4.25  x 6 inches)

Editor/Publisher:  S.M. Fox, Friends Latin School, Philadelphia, PA (the editor’s name is on page two at the conclusion of the introductory editorial and in a news brief about school elections on page four)

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

Full title:  The Students Gazette Containing Advices both Foreign & Domestic; First issue, Wednesday, June 11, 1777.

Harwood claims that this was “America’s first student newspaper, published at Friends Latin School,  Philadelphia, Pa., in 1777” (p. 326).

Information Sources:

Bibliography: William N. Harwood, Writing and Editing School News (Caldwell, ID: Clark Publishing Co,  1977), pp 326-327.

Locations:  The Morley Collection, Manuscripts, The Quaker Collection, Haverford College, Haverford, PA

The Soldier Weekly-News (ID, 1893)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Soldier, Idaho

Frequency:  Weekly (monthly?)

Volume and Issue Data:  Two issues extant:  Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan. 13, 1893, and No. 2? Feb 10, 1893

Size and Format:  8 x 13 inches; one column; two pages

Editor/Publisher:  Soldier Literary Society

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

The paper’s motto, written just below the title, on both extant copies is “Hew to the line, let chips fall where they may.”  The first issue states that “in obedience to the gracious request of the Soldier Literary Society, we assume the publication of a paper in promoting the interests of that Society, and will present our first number this evening, under the title of the ‘Soldier Weekly News.'”

“We make our editorial bow on the sea of journalism, with some misgivings as to our untried ability to please all, but with the aid of the members of this Society and an earnest effort on our part, we hope to issue weekly, a journal which may interest and amuse each and every member of this Society.

“In politics the news will be strictly independent.

“Contributions, other than objectional or personally abusive articles, solicited from members of the Society.  Any article calculated to injure the feelings of any member of our Society or any citizen of our place will not be accepted.  As many of the ‘home staff’ possess decided talent in the journalistic line, we may expect newsy and interesting contributions.  Having secured a corps of able correspondents we promise our readers the cream of legislative news from Boise, as well as events of interest in all (remainder of line illegible)” (from page one, first issue, Jan. 13, 1893).

The extant copies contain “Local News” shorts, “Notes from neighboring places,” appeals for advertisements and an obituary.

The “Notes from neighboring places” section of the Feb. 10 issue begins, “Telegrams from up the Creek.”

The Feb. 10 issue notes, “We are pleased to record that the circulation of the ‘Soldier Weekly-News‘ is rapidly increasing and advertisements coming in liberally.  It affords us much pleasure to see our paper thus appreciated.  We entertain the ambition ere the close of 1893 of securing the largest circulation of any paper in Idaho.

“We are not giving to our readers a larger amount of news, local and foreign than any paper in Idaho (sic) the state.”

Information Sources:                                                                  

Bibliography:  None

Locations: Idaho State Historical Society, Boise, ID

Soldier’s Letter: Second Colorado Cavalry (KS, 1864-1865)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Kansas City and Fort Riley, Kansas

Frequency:  Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, Nos. 1-50, 1864-1865

Size and Format:  7 1/2 x 9 1/2 in.; four pages, four columns; pages 1, 2, and 4 were printed, but page 3 was blank for individual soldiers to make personal comments or statements

Editor/Publisher:  Printed content’s editor and proprietor, Oliver V. Wallace

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

The Soldier’s Letter was a regimental paper published between 1864 and 1865 for the Second Colorado Cavalry:  “A Regimental Paper–To Accompany the Regiment.”  The paper was priced at 10 cents per single copy.  The paper’s motto, “The Flag We Fight Under,” was accompanied by a Union flag graphic.

Published at Kansas City and Fort Riley, Kansas, the printed pages included poetry, history and specific military news items.  Letters were also included, as were extracts from the Journal of Commerce, Illustrated News, and Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.  Several items discussed aspects of the Civil War.  Letters from Fort Larned, Kansas, described problems with Indian attacks and illnesses.

The blank pages contained the comments and statements of soldiers in the regiment.  The handwritten pages included news items, poetry and proverbs.  Vol. 1, No. 20, dated March 18, 1865, addresses “Young Men.”  They are encouraged to maintain high morals and to take as their “motto:  self-reliance, honesty and industry.”

Information Sources:                                                                      

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  Western History Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, CO

The Sitka Times (AK, 1868)

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Publication History

Place of Publication:  Sitka, Alaska Territory

Frequency:  Weekly (irregular)

Volume and Issue Data: Sept. 19, 1868, 1:1; Oct. 19, 1868, 1:6; Oct. 31, 1868, 1:7; Nov. 7, 1868, 1:8

Size and Format:  8 x 12 in.; two cols.; four pages; cursive pen and ink.

Editor/Publisher:  Thomas G. Murphy, aka “Barney O. Ragan” or “Regan”

Title Changes and Continuations:  The Sitka Times (Sept. 19, 1868-Nov. 7, 1868) continued as Alaska Times (printed), 1869-1870.

General Description and Notes:

Editor Murphy (“Regan”) claimed The Sitka Times was “the first paper published in Alaska.”  The “introductory” column on page two outlines the editor’s intention to publish local news and to promote the general economic development of the region:

“To day we present the Sitka Times to the citizens of  Sitka and the world at large.  It is the first attempt ever made to publish a paper in this vast land of Alaska.  The Times will be devoted to local and general news.  We shall, when we deem it practicable, discuss all question of public interest, touching the affairs about Alaska.  In Politics and Religion the Times will be neutral.  The Pacific Rail Road we are in favor of and would love to hear the scream of its whistle echoed from the peaks of Alaska, and the musical strain of humanity shouting a chorus of  ‘Let the iron horse speed along with its precious burden of emigration.’  We are strongly in favor of a civil government and strictly opposed to military rule.  Give Alaska a civil government, you may soon expect to hear of rich minerals having been fully developed by our latent industry, but not before.

“Having no ‘devil’ in our office the ‘Times‘ should be virtuous.

“As our local items will be few we shall spare no pains in giving a well defined description of all fights; recording in language of flowers the matrimonial pursuits of mankind; with the respectful details of those, whose souls have fled to the ‘spirit land'” (1:1, p. 2, cols. 1  and 2a).

The editor explained and defended the handwritten format of his paper in the first “Editorial:”

“The appearance of the ‘Times‘ being written instead of printed will perhaps cause many a laugh.  In olden times a laugh would be out of place, as written pamphlets and the town crier were the means alone employed of conveying news, as no [?] parties at that time had been established by the fair.

“To invest in the purchase of a press would incur great expense and until we see better inducements than are now offered, a press can be dispensed with, although the copying of even so small a sheet, as this is, requires much labor and some means.

“Our budget in producing such a paper is not with the view of making a fortune, but chiefly if possible to gratify the citizens of our Town and for this we shall do our best” (1:1, p. 2, col. 2)

The paper’s script is relatively large and the cursive hand is quite legible.  The front page of the first number includes a large, bold name and masthead and the rest is advertisements for Sitka businesses.  Page two is the editor’s introductory comments and the editorial.  Page three covers seven local news stories including ship arrivals and departures.  The fourth and last page is even divided between local news and advertisements.

According to Hinckley, Murphy was known by contemporaries as a “politician, lawyer, priest, editor, printer, author and poet.”  He organized early efforts to establish a civil government for the territory and was elected by a small but apparently unrepresentative group to head the new government.  Within three days a second vote removed Murphy from office.  He later became the city attorney.

Murphy eventually imported a printing press, but had insufficient money to print his newspaper.  The Sitka mayor invested the necessary funds and, on April 23, 1869, Murphy edited the first printed issue of the (retitled) Alaska Times.

Information Sources

Bibliography:  Ted C. Hinckley, The Americanization of Alaska, 1867-1897 (Palo Alto, Calif.:  Pacific Books, Publishers, 1972), 39-46; Nichols, “History of Alaska Under Rule of  the United States,” (1924), 426; James Wickersham, A Bibliography of Alaska Literature, 1724-1924 (Cordova, Ak.:  Cordova Daily Times Print, 1927), 253-254.

Locations:  Cu-B; DLC (photocopy, 1:1 only); Territorial Library-Juneau.

Sharp Citizen (AR, 1972-1978)


Publication History:

Place of Publication:  NE Arkansas, Sharp County, AR

Frequency: Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  January 18, 1972 through August 9, 1974 (holdings).  Paper ceased in 1978.

Size and Format: 8 1/2 x 11, typed text with handwritten headlines and hand-drawn graphics, mimeographed, issues run up to 8 pages.

Editor/Publisher:  “a character” :  Joseph H. Weston, editor and publisher

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

This was a community paper with a partisan political edge. Text of the paper is typed, and all headlines, sub-heads, graphics, and ads are handwritten and or/hand drawn.  The first issue claims the paper is “Sharp County’s only metropolitan newspaper–professional journalism with conscience and vision” (Vol. 1, No. 3, Feb. 1, 1972, adds “with conscience, courage, vision!”). With headlines such as “Is Judge Ransom C. Jones Operating His city Court In Cave City as a Racket Under Order from Elvis” and “Rat Poison Deliberately Fed into Public Drinking Water for More Than a Quarter of a Century,” it is not hard to imagine that the editor invited libel lawsuits.  The March 28, 1973 edition (Vol. 2, No. 13) includes “An Appeal for Help” (p. 3) because, as the editor writes, members of the Sharp County political establishment “induced my next door neighbor, to swear out a warrant for my arrest on the antique charge of ‘criminal libel’ for publishing an article in which I attacked our corrupt County Judge Lester Anderson and his crony and gravel contractor, Dickey, with equal vigor. The charge is preposterous, and the law is ridiculous.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Arkansas Historical Commission, Little Rock, AR (collection only has the 1972-74 issues)

The Scottsville Weekly News (NY, 1856-1857)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Scottsville, NY

Frequency:  Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  Several issues from 1856 & 1857.  Extant copy of Vol.  II, No. 20, May 16, 1857 (pages 77-80)

Size and Format: Legal size, four pages, three columns

Editor/Publisher:  Franklin Hanford, Editor and Proprietor (b. Chili, NY, 1844; d. 1936). Extensive biographical information included about him in the Franklin Hanford Papers, University of Rochester, Rare Books and Special Collections (D. 143).

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:        

Produced this newspaper when the editor was 12 years old. Also created The American Monthly Magazine, 1858 (also contained in the author’s archived papers).

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Item No. D.143, Hanford (Franklin) Papers, 1864-1936, Box 35, folder 1; 35 boxes. Rush Rhees Library, Rare Books and Special Collections, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

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