The Stonewall Register (DE, 1865)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Fort Delaware, DE

Frequency:  Unknown, one extant issue

Volume and Issue Data:  April 1, 1865

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher: Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  See The Prison Times

General Description and Notes:

First issue of a manuscript newspaper by Confederate prisoners of war of what is likely the U.S. prison at Fort Delaware.  Drawing of “Stonewall” Jackson flanked by Confederate flags heads the papers.  The paper contains salutatory; editorial; letter to the editor; camp news; advertisements; poetry; financial and Savannah commercial column; roll and rules of the Stonewall Chess Club.

The following notes are from the Georgia Historical Society records of The Stonewall Register:

“This collection contains the first issue, April 1, 1865, of The Stonewall Register. This handwritten newspaper was produced by prisoners held at the Fort Delaware prison during the Civil War and sold for fifty cents. The decorative masthead includes an illustration of Stonewall Jackson, for whom the paper is named. It includes letters to the paper, poetry, a description of the “Rebel Yell” and advertisements for tobacco, jewelry, engravings, laundry services, and hair cuts. It also gives financial and commercial news and a list of members and rules of the Stonewall Chess Club.

“Fort Delaware is located on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River. An earthwork fort was built on the island in 1813 and was replaced by a masonry fort in 1819. This fort was destroyed by fire in 1832 and construction of the present structure was completed in 1859. During the Civil War the fort was used as a prison with 250 of Stonewall Jackson’s soldiers being the first prisoners following the Battle of Kernstown in 1862. The fort was not intended for prisoners and modifications were made in order to house 10,000 captured Confederates. About 2,700 soldiers died at Fort Delaware with 2,400 of these being buried in a national cemetery at Finn’s Point, New Jersey. Fort Delaware was closed in 1944.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:

Link: Georgia Historical Society, Stonewall Register catalog entry

Locations:  The Stonewall Register, MS 766, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia

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The Prison Times (DE, 1865)

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Prison Times, DE, 1865; Image Source: Library of Congress; images of four pages at the New York Historical Society website

Place of Publication:  Fort Delaware, a Union prison camp holding Confederate officer prisoners, located on Pea Patch Island where the Delaware River merges into Delaware Bay, just south of New Castle, DE

Frequency:  Four extant copies (according to the NY Historical Society [with thanks to Joseph Ditta; see comments below; updated 9-24-12)

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol.  1, No. 1, April  8, 1865

Size and Format:  See image below

Editor/Publisher:  J.W. Hibbs, Capt. 13th Va. Inf.was the publisher.  Proprietors and editors were George S. Thomas, Capt. 6thGa., Div. 24; W.H. Bennett, Capt. & A.C.S., Div. 24; and A. Harris, Lt. 3rdFla., Div. 28.

Title Changes and Continuation:  See The Stonewall Register

General Description and Notes:

Evidently there are three extant copies of the same issue, one in Savannah, Georgia, Charleston, South Carolina, and the other in Buffalo, NY.  The paper contains editorials, announcements, advertisements, poetry, barracks directory, Christian Association Directory, notices of clubs, and prison news notes.  The NY letter says, “As General Lee surrendered to General Grant on the 9th, this [April 8] issue may well have been the sole issue.”

In a letter from William H. Loos, Curator, Rare Book Room, Buffalo and Erie County Public Library, Buffalo, NY, dated July 14, 1993, Loos states that he found an extant copy of The Prison Times in “an old portfolio of loose single issues of early American newspapers that we have had for many years and which I had not had occasion to consult in nearly twenty years.” Two representatives from the New York State Library, who were working on the state’s portion of the national newspaper project, came to the Buffalo library to research their collection. “When I reviewed this portfolio before one of the researchers recorded its contents,” Loos wrote, “I was surprised to find a handwritten newspaper.”

According to Loos,

“The newspaper is vol. 1, no. 1 of the Prison Times issued at Fort Delaware in 1865. On page two, the date April 8th appears. As General Lee surrendered to General Grant on the 9th, this may well have been the sole issue. Fort Delaware was a prison camp for Confederate officers. The fort was located on Pea Patch Island where the Delaware River merges into Delaware Bay, just south of New Castle, Delaware.”

According to the South Carolina Historical Society records, P.A. McMichael raised a Confederate volunteer company that became Company G of the Twentieth South Carolina Infantry. He served in the Charleston, South Carolina area (1861-1863) mainly around Sullivan’s Island, and in Virginia, where he participated in the battle of Cold Harbor and was promoted to Lt. Col of the 20th Regiment. He was captured at Cedar Creek and taken to Fort Delaware.  His collection includes the handwritten newspaper, Prison Times (vol. 1, no. 1) for prisoners at Fort Delaware, Del. The South Carolina Historical Society catalog says the paper contains “advertisements for tailoring, barbering, music, religious assistance, debate and chess clubs with poetry, barracks directory, and descriptions and comments on prison life.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:

Links: New York Historical SocetyGeorgia Historical Society catalog entry for The Prison Times;  South Carolina Historical Society, Paul A. McMichael holdings; see also  http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93063825/

Locations:  Prison Times, Misc. Fort Delaware: NYUGB12021269-A, New York Historical Society, with images of four pages; Prison Times, MS 638, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia; and Buffalo and Erie County Public Library, Buffalo, NY; and Prison Times in Paul Agalus McMichael (1820-1869),  correspondence and diary, 1861-1865 (1073.00),  South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston, SC.

The Payson Advocate (UT, 1865)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Payson, Utah (ca. 1865)

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  At least 6 issues, ca. 1865

Size and Format:  Approx. 8 pages

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown (also known as The Advocate)

General Description and Notes:

Alter quotes the Deseret News, March 29, 1865:

The Payson Advocate and The Intelligencer.  Manuscript newspapers, 8 pages each, judging from letters, and No. 6 of the Advocate, are proving interesting and beneficial to both writers and readers–a very commendable mode of using a portion of leisure time.”

(See also The Intelligencer)

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  J. Cecil Alter, Early Utah Journalism (Salt Lake City:  Utah State Historical Society, 1938), 190

Locations:  No issues located, but cited in the Deseret News,March 29, 1865

Our Port Folio (NJ, 1865-1885)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Lake Hopatcong, NJ, Public School

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1865-1885

Size and Format:  22 pages

Editor/Publisher:  “The young ladies of the public school in district no. 4.”

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

“The young ladies of the public school in district no. 4.” It is faintly written, in pencil or badly faded ink.

Information Sources:               

Bibliography: None

Locations:  New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, NJ

The Intelligencer (UT, ca. 1865)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Payson, Utah

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Ca. 1865

Size and Format:  Approx. eight pages

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

Alter quotes the Deseret News, March 29, 1865:

The Payson Advocate and The Intelligencer.  Manuscript newspapers, 8 pages each, judging from letters, and No. 6 of the Advocate, are proving interesting and beneficial to both writers and readers–a very commendable mode of using a portion of leisure time.”

(See THE PAYSON ADVOCATE)

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  J. Cecil Alter, Early Utah Journalism  (Salt Lake City:  Utah State Historical Society, 1938), 190.

Locations:  No issues located, but cited in the Deseret News, March 29, 1865

The Intelligencer (UT, 1865)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Parowan, Utah

Frequency:  Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol.1 No.3, Feb 11, 1865; Vol.1,  No.4, Feb. 18, 1865; Vol.1, No.6, March 4, 1865

Size and Format:  8”x12”, 2 columns

Editor/Publisher:  Joseph Fish, William Davenport, H.S. Coombs

Title Changes and Continuation:

General Description and Notes:

Motto:  “Thought is the Mind’s Wealth”

The Intelligencer is published every Saturday morning by the young men of Parowan, Utah.

Terms:  Read and return to editor.

Advertisements free

Poetry, lit. stories, Religion, ads, city council news, letter to the editor

(p.2-3, No.4) The editors of the Intelligencer had thought of changing the name of this sheet, but upon more mature deliberation, they think it best to continue the original title.  To those shoe were present at the spelling school and saw The Hesperian Sentinal this may serve as an explanation of the change.

Alter, p.189:  Parowan, Iron County, S. Utah:  “The Intelligencer, a pen and ink manuscript newspaper comes to life for a single glance through a reference by editor Stenhouse of the Salt Lake Daily Telegraph, Saturday morning, April 16, 1865.

“Our Southern contemporary, that unpretending sheet, the Intelligencer, published by the Young Men of Parowan, comes to our table as regularly as the Southern mail will admit. It contains articles upon education and other matters worthy of perusal.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  J. Cecil Alter, Early Utah Journalism (Salt Lake City:  Utah State Historical Society, 1938), 190

Locations:  Mormon Church Archives (M5d5824), Salt Lake City, UT;  Cited in the Desert News, March 29, 1865

The Camp Ford News (TX, 1865)

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Camp Ford News (TX, 1865)

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Camp Ford (Confederate Prison Fort), Tyler, Texas

Frequency:  “Only one copy is known to have been printed, this being the issue of May 1, 1865”

Volume and Issue Data:  May 1, 1865 (one issue: Civil War ended the next week)

Size and Format:  One sheet broadside

Editor/Publisher:  Capt. Lewis Burger

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description & Notes:

Like the OLD FLAG and RIGHT FLANKER, this was a paper created to relieve the monotony and trials of prison life during the Civil War.  Only one issue appeared apparently because May 13-17, 1865 marked the end of the Civil War and the abandonment of Camp Ford.

Camp Ford was part of a Confederate prison complex in Tyler and Hempstead, Texas.  The prison held officers and enlisted men from 1863 to the end of war and the prisoners had built their own shelters.  After 1864 and the Red River Campaign, prison crowding and sickness increased, and the general conditions of prison life declined.  It was during these latter days of the War that the paper was produced.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  F. Lee Lawrence and Robert W. Glover, Camp Ford, C.S.A.:  The Story of Union Prisoners in Texas (Austin, Texas:  Texas Civil War Centennial Advisory Committee, 1964); Mark Boatner, III, The Civil War Dictionary (New York: Random House, 1991).

Locations:  Smith County Historical Society, Texas

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