The Shushana News (AK, no date)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Chisana, Alaska

Frequency:  Daily, but irregular

Volume and Issue Data:  Unknown

Size and Format:  Ledger sheets

Editor/Publisher:  “A placer miner named McGillicuddy” (Davis, 1976)

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to Davis, a placer miner named McGillicuddy issued the Shushana News from a cabin eight miles from his nearest neighbor.  He owned the only radio in the area and would take notes of broadcasts, then rewrite his notes on ledger sheets.  A dog at a camp eight miles away had been trained to fetch McGillicuddy’s daily and return it to the camp.  McGillicuddy handed the paper to the dog, neatly rolled in a strong wrapper, and the newsdog would return to its master at the camp with the latest radio news reports.  The dog’s master would then post the paper where everyone else in the camp could read it.  On at least one occasion, the dog returned without the paper, but was punished and produced the missing paper.

Information Sources:                 

Bibliography:  Phyllis Davis, A Guide to Alaska’s Newspapers (Juneau, Alaska:  Gastineau Channel Centennial Association and Alaska Division of  State Libraries and Museums, 1976), p 14.

Locations:  No copies located

The Scorpion (NV, 1857)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Genoa (Mormon Station), Nevada

Frequency:  Probably monthly

Volume and Issue Data: Feb. 1, 1857-ca.Dec. 1857

Size and Format:  12 columns, with illustrations; written in “a large, bold hand”

Editor/Publisher:  Stephen A. Kinsey

Title Changes and Continuations:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to Lingenfelter and Gash, The Scorpion was the second handwritten newspaper produced in Nevada, following the lead of Joseph Webb’s Gold Canon Switch (ca. 1854).  The paper carried the motto:  “Fear no man, and do justice to all.”  The monthly publication reportedly contained 12 columns of stories and illustrations, including caricatures.  The paper said it would “contain a full and extensive digest of all the current news and discussions of the day,” and that “nothing which can interest the general reader will be omitted.”

Lingenfelter and Gash speculate that “the paper probably died before its twelfth number,” a year before the first printed paper, the Territorial Enterprise, appeared in the Nevada territory.  The Enterprise reported April 12, 1871 under the headline, “A Curiosity,” that the paper had been shown a copy of The ScorpionThe Enterprise reported that the July 1, 1857 issue of The Scorpion was written in “a large, bold hand.”

Information Sources

Bibliography:  Bob Karolevitz, “Pen and Ink Newspapers of the Old West,” Frontier Times, 44:2 (Feb.-Mar., 1970), 31; Robert F. Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West:  A Pictorial History of Journalism and Printing on the Frontier (New York:  Bonanza Books, 1969), p. 115; Jake Highton, Nevada Newspaper Days:  A History of Journalism in the Silver State (Stockton, Calif.:  Heritage West Books, 1990), pp. 2; Dan De Quille, The Big Bonanza (New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1947); see also, Territorial Enterprise, April 12, 1871; Richard E. Lingenfelter, The Newspapers of Nevada (San Francisco:  John Howell-Books, 1964), p. 47; Richard E. Lingenfelter and Karen R. Gash, The Newspapers of Nevada (Reno:  University of Nevada Press, 1984), p. 89.

Locations:  None

Scorpion (CA, 1857)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Placerville, California

Frequency: One known issue

Volume and Issue Data: 1857

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher: Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

According to Kennedy, the paper may have been humorous.

“The Scorpion was a manuscript paper which roused the ire of a contributor of the Mountain Democrat.  In a letter published in that paper on March 27, 1857, the contributor, who signed herself “Manta,” violently belabored the Scorpion.  It seems to have been a scandal sheet, published by a group of men who resented the refusal of some young women to dance with them.  If the Scorpion was any more venomous than the women who described it, it must have been one of the most poisonous papers on record.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Kennedy, Newspapers of California North Mines, 524

Locations: Unknown

Potosi Nix Cum Rouscht (NV, 1861)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Potosi, Nevada (then in northwest New Mexico Territory)

Frequency:  Not more than one or two issues

Volume and Issue Data:  Late Feb. 1861

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Capt. J.E. Stevens, aka “Man about the Mill”

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

According to Lingenfelter and Gash, editor Stevens started this manuscript paper in late Feb. 1861 so as “not to be outdone by Talbott’s Miner’s Voice.”  Stevens was the president of the Colorado Mining Company and founder of Potosi.  The editor said the paper was “printed” at Las Vegas station and “published at Potosi.”  The paper probably did not last beyond the first issue.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Robert F. Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West:  A Pictorial History of Journalism and Printing on the Frontier (New York:  Bonanza Books, 1969), p. 119; Richard E. Lingenfelter, The Newspapers of Nevada (San Francisco:  John Howell-Books, 1964), 67; Richard E. Lingenfelter and Karen R. Gash, The Newspapers of Nevada (Reno:  University of Nevada Press, 1984), p. 171.

Locations:  No issues located, but Feb. 19, 1861 issue (Vol. 1, No. 1) quoted in Los Angeles Star, March 9, 1861.

Pine Grove and Rockland Star (NV, 1872)

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See Pine Grove Burlesque

Pine Grove Chronicle (NV, 1872)

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Pine Grove Burlesque (NV, 1872)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Pine Grove, Lyon County, Nevada

Frequency:  Irregular

Volume and Issue Data:  1872

Size and Format:  Written in a single bound volume

Editor/Publisher:  Pine Grove (and Rockland) Lyceum

Title Changes and Continuation:  Also titles of Esmeralda Sun, Pine Grove and Rockland Star, Pine Grove Chronicle, and Pick and Shovel.

General Description and Notes:

The lyceum members of Pine Grove, a mining camp in Lyon County, produced a manuscript newspaper containing literary items and local news in 1872.  Irregularly appearing as the Pine Grove BurlesqueEsmeralda Sun, Pine Grove and Rockland Star, Pine Grove Chronicle, and Pick and Shovel, the papers were written in a single bound journal and reportedly was kept on the counter of a general store owned by the Wilson family, (William Wilson make the initial gold discovery at Pine Grove), where local citizens could read it.

The bound journal records news of the Pine Grove-Rockland area at a time when neither community had a printed newspaper.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  “Pine Grove Lyceum Papers,” Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, XXIX: 3 (Fall 1985), pp. 221-222.

Locations:  Nevada Historical Society

Pick and Shovel (NV, 1872)

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Owl (CA, 1859)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: North Bloomfield, California (1859)

Frequency:  Only one issue known

Volume and Issue Data:  ca. February 1859

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  None (see Miner’s News)

General Description and Notes:

According to Kennedy, North Bloomfield, a mining town on the South Fork of the Yuba River, did not have a printed newspaper in the 1850s, but the Hydraulic Press identified at least two manuscript papers, the Owl and the Miner’s News.

In the Feb. 5, 1859 issue of the Press, the editor reported that the Owl was North Bloomfield’s paper:

THE OWL.  This is the name of a manuscript paper published at North Bloomfield, and of which we have received a copy.  The owl was Minerva’s bird; but there is not much wisdom about this one.  We learn from its advertising columns that one gentleman holds all of the following positions:  Post Master, Express Agent, Justice of the Peace, Road Overseer, School Director, Gold Dust buyer and News Agent.  There’s honor for you.  Talk about republics being ungrateful.

B.P. Avery, editor of the Hydraulic Press, did not identify the editor or provide other details about the Owl.  No other references to the manuscript paper are known.

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterB. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 25, 39, 511-12, 608

Locations:  None located, but cited in Hydraulic Press, Feb. 5, 1859

The Nugget (ZIM, 1890)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Fort Victoria, Mashonaland, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia)

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: November 11, 1890

Size and Format: In manuscript; motto: “Root hog or bust”

Editor/Publisher: H.R. Vennell

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to the British South Africa Company Historical Catalogue and Souvenir of Rhodesia, Empire Exhibition, 1936-1937,

   “273. First Newspaper, Mashonaland. – The Nugget, with the motto Root hog or bust, produced in manuscript at Fort Victoria, 11th November, 1890 (two months after the occupation of Mashonaland). The Editor says frankly that his principal object was to be the first in the field of journalism in the country. Printed and published by H. R. Vennell at the Nugget Publishing Company’s works, Fort Victoria, Mashonaland. No price is mentioned.

– Government Archives, Salisbury”

Information Sources: 

Bibliography:  British South Africa Company Historical Catalogue and Souvenir of Rhodesia, Empire Exhibition, 1936-1937 (1937); Jerry Don Vann, Rosemary T. VanArsdel, Periodicals of Queen Victoria’s Empire: An Exploration (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. 290; Press Reference-Zimbabwe; Louis W. Bolze, “The Book Publishing Scene in Zimbabwe,” The African Book Publishing Record, 6:3-4 (1980), 229–236

Locations:  None

Miner’s News (CA, 1859)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: North Bloomfield, California

Frequency:  Monthly (Only two issues known)

Volume and Issue Data:  ca. February and March, 1859

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  James Marriot (1859)

Title Changes and Continuation:  None (see the OWL)

General Description and Notes:

According to Kennedy, North Bloomfield, California, had no printed newspapers, but it did have two manuscript publications:  the Owl and the Miner’s News.  The appearance of the Miner’s News was announced in the Hydraulic Press:

THE MINER’S NEWS–This is the title of a new manuscript newspaper published at North Bloomfield by Jas. Marriot, and of which we have received the first number.  It presents quite a neat appearance, the head being ornamented by a drawing of an honest miner with this pick and shovel on his way to work.

The editor of the Hydraulic Press, B.P. Avery, then quoted a discussion of chronic grumblers from the Miner’s News, and said, “As our cotem. [sic] intends to devote his paper to the mining interest, we wish him success, and will gladly exchange.”

On March 12, 1859, the Hydraulic Press editor noted another issued of the Miner’s News, but the North Bloomfield paper did not appear in the columns of the press again.  Kennedy observes, “Whether both the Owl and the Miner’s News suspended publication shortly after they started, or Avery was tired of mentioning them cannot be determined” (p. 512).

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterP. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 25, 37, 512, 608)

Locations:  None located, but cited in Hydraulic Press,Feb. 19, 1859andMarch 12, 1859

The Miner’s Expose (CA, 1856)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Granite Hill, El Dorado County, California

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1856

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  “Mr. Baker”

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:

The newspaper Alta California printed the following item in its Feb. 14, 1856 edition:

NEW PAPER–We learn that a paper entitled The Miner’s Expose, and edited by Mr. Baker, has lately been started at Granite Hill, El Dorado County.  We have not yet seen a copy.

This was the only reference to the Miner’s Expose Kennedy located in his research on northern California mining camp newspapers.  According to Kennedy, “one might guess, from the title, that it was a protest paper of some sort, but at best that is only a guess.  It probably was a manuscript paper and there is a possibility it was never published at all.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography: ChesterP. Kennedy, “Newspapers of the California Northern Mines, 1850-1860–A Record of Life, Letters and Culture,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1949, pp. 26, 37, 532-33, 601

Locations:  None located, but cited in Alta California, Feb. 14, 1856

Le Californien (CA, 1850)

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Le Californien (CA, 1850)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: San Francisco, California

Frequency:  Weekly, began January 17,1850, ceased in Feb? 1850.

Volume and Issue Data: January 31, 1850, No. 3.

Size and Format: Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

In French.  Lithographed due to lack of proper type for French language.  The librarian could not locate the original, but they are supposed to have it.

Information Sources:                

Bibliography:  Wall, Alexander J. “Early Newspapers,” New-York Historical Society Quarterly, V. 15, N. 2 (July 1931).

Locations: Newspaper Collection, New York Historical Society, New York, NY

Lake Peak News (NV, 1906)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Walker Lake Reservation, Nevada

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: Oct. 29, 1906, only known issue reported

Size and Format:  Four pages

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: None

General Description and Notes:

A story in the Reno Nevada State Journal, of Oct. 31, 1906, p. 5, under the headline, “First Newspaper is ‘Printed’ with Pencil,” states:

“The first newspaper published in the newly opened Walker Lake reservation has come into the hands of the Journal.  It is a curiosity.  Four pages constitute its dimensions and it is written with a pencil.  It is called the Lake Peak News.  The principal article, the “lead,” written under date of October 29 [1906], concerns a townsite already laid out and called Lake Peak.

“Prospectors report,” says the article, “that thirty claims have been staked out at Lake Peak in the porphyry hills.  it is estimated that 2400 men made the dash into the reservation today.  One hundred from Cat Creek, near Hawthorne, 500 from Montella, 200 from Bald Mountain, 150 from Buck Brush, 100 from Schurz, 50 from Thorne and neighboring hills, 150 from Hawthorne and 400 from miscellaneous points.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Cited in Reno, Nevada State Journal, Wed., Oct. 31, 1906, p.5; reprinted in Fallon Churchill Standard, Nov. 10, 1906.

Locations: Unknown

Hazelton Queek (BC, 1880-1881)

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Hazelton Queek (BC, 1881)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Hazelton (Caledonia?), British Columbia, Canada

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  1880-1881

Size and Format: Unknown (see image)

Editor/Publisher: Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

A typewritten memo with the Queek in the BC Archives by Mrs. H.K. Andrews (or “Miss Woods”, whose name is scratched out) reads,

“In the year 1880, I went North with my brother to stay with our people the Tomlinsons. My brother to assist in farm and agricultural work which Mr. Tomlinson the missionary was starting, to help the Indians improve their mode of life. And had settled a little place called Ankihtlast–about 150 miles from the Coast and 20 miles from Hazelton, near the head of Navigation on the Skeena. I went to try and help my sister with the children (four in number). In the year of 80 & 81 Bp. and Mrs. Ridley having been sent by the C.F.S. to be head of the Missions were living at what we called ‘The Forks’ (the junction of the Bulkley and Skeena), now I believe called Old Hazelton. Wishing to do all possible to help the whites, Mrs. Ridley started what she called pleasant evenings on every Tuesday and her house was open house specially for the men who came out from Omineca. An evening of readings, music and general social intercourse.  This social evening developed into a desire for a weekly paper, both the Bp. and Mrs. R. were talented & had taken many sketches locally. Mrs. R. and I going out together, sketching up the Haguilket Valley. There was no news coming in for the winter months from the outside world, we were absolutely cut off till spring would come. So everyone was expected to help in gathering items of interest, a riddle, a story, anything. My brother sent weather readings from our mission station. I contributed a few sketches, for our paper was an illustrated one, and we looked forward to receiving it on Saturday. The Bp. wrote out and transferred it on a gelatine press, sufficient numbers for the regular customers–about 10 or 12 I suppose; the Hankins, ourselves, & the miners. “

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations: British Columbia Archives and Records Services, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Granite Times (NV, 1908)

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Granite Times (NV, 1908)

Place of Publication:  Granite (seven miles west of Schurz in present-day Mineral County), Nevada

Frequency:  Weekly?

Volume and Issue Data:  March 20, 1908-May 1, 1908

Size and Format:  Two-page, three columns; graphite pencil and blue pencil headlines, or black ink in longhand, with occasional shading and coloring with crayon

Editor/Publisher:  Frank Eugene Bugbee (elected to Nevada Assembly 1931, 1933, and 1937) (1908)

Title Changes and Continuation:  Richard E. Lingenfelter, The Newspapers of Nevada (San Francisco:  John Howell-Books, 1964), 131, identifies paper as the Granite News.

General Description & Notes:

The Granite Times, according to its 1908 Easter edition, was “Devoted to the Mining and Material Interests of Granite and the Mountain View District.”  According to Highton, the paper was regularly sold for $1, while the special the Easter edition was $5.  The paper included general local news, editorials and poetry.  Stories addressed such events as the completion of an automobile road between Granite and Schurz.  The Rawhide Rustler, April 18, 1908, reproduced a portion of the Granite Times:  “We reproduce . . . a section of the Times, a paper printed in lead pencil in the new town of Granite . . . .  It shows the usual progressiveness of new mining camps in Nevada.”  Lingenfelter and Gash speculate that the Times suspended publication with its seventh number on May 1, 1908.

Earl and Moody report that editor Bugbee was an Ohio native who taught school in Kansas before arriving in Nevada at the turn of the century.  He visited several mining towns before joining the rush to Granite and starting the Times.  Bugbee reported in one issue that he had ordered a carload of type to print his paper, but through an error he received a mess of tripe.  He offered “a bar of soap and a pound of tripe” to those who solicited others for new subscriptions to the Times.  Noted the editor, “Do not get discouraged because have not the tools and equipment you should have to run your lease.  The editor has only three lead pencils, but he gets out a paper every week.”

The two extant issue of the Granite Times at the Nevada Historical Society were donated by Bugbee in 1909.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Phillip I. Earl and Eric Moody, “Type, Tripe and the Granite Times,” Nevada Magazine, (May-June 1982), 17-18; Jake Highton, Nevada Newspaper Days:  A History of Journalism in the Silver State (Stockton, Calif.:  Heritage West Books, 1990), pp. 97;  Richard E. Lingenfelter, The Newspapers of Nevada (San Francisco:  John Howell-Books, 1964), 131 (identifies paper as the Granite News); Richard E. Lingenfelter and Karen R. Gash, The Newspapers of Nevada (Reno:  University of Nevada Press, 1984), 110.

Locations:  April 17, May 1, 1908:  NvHi (also on microfilm)

The Gold Canon Switch (NV, 1854)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Johntown, Utah Territory (four miles from what became Virginia City, Nevada)

Frequency:  Frequency disputed:  weekly, monthly or irregular

Volume and Issue Data:  Ca. 1854

Size and Format:  “Often several sheets

Editor/Publisher:  Joseph Webb (1854)

Title Changes and Continuations:  Unknown

General Description & Notes:

According to De Quille and Highton, the Switch was “a spicy, handwritten weekly, ‘often several sheets,’ and passed from hand to hand.”  Lingenfelter and Gash say the paper was “probably issued monthly on letter paper and in a very small edition.”  De Quille claims the paper was widely circulated and read in Johntown when it was a major mining center.  The editor, Joe Webb, was a partner of “Old Virginy” Fenimore, for whom Virginia City was later named, according to Lingenfelter.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Bob Karolevitz, “Pen and Ink Newspapers of the Old West,” Frontier Times, 44:2 (Feb.-Mar., 1970), 31; Robert F. Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West:  A Pictorial History of Journalism and Printing on the Frontier (New York:  Bonanza Books, 1969), p. 114; Jake Highton, Nevada Newspaper Days:  A History of Journalism in the Silver State (Stockton, Calif.:  Heritage West Books, 1990), pp. 2; Dan De Quille, History of The Big Bonanza (New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1947), p. 11.

Index Sources:  Richard E. Lingenfelter, The Newspapers of Nevada (San Francisco:  John Howell-Books, 1964), 61; Richard E. Lingenfelter and Karen R. Gash, The Newspapers of Nevada (Reno:  University of Nevada Press, 1984).

Locations:  None

Esmeralda Sun (NV, 1872)

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East of the Nevada; or The Miner’s Voice from Colorado (NV, 1861?)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Potosi, Nevada (then in northwest corner of New Mexico Territory)

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb. 19, 1861-?

Size and Format:  Unknown

Editor/Publisher:  J. A. Talbott

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description & Notes:

According to Lingenfelter and Gash, editor J.A. Talbott, a former printer from Calaveras, came to Potosi following a silver discovery in 1860 without printing equipment.  Talbott justified publishing the East of the Nevada in its first issue:  “The manifold wants of our community rendering it necessary, owing to our isolated position, shut out from those sources of information and instruction that is as familiar as ‘household words’ in a settled community, renders it necessary to have a vehicle of thought amongst us by which an interchange of intelligence should be disseminated, questions discussed, wit circulated, and those precious gems preserved, without which ‘this world would be a void.’  For this end, and under our peculiar circumstances, our sheet is issued.”  The paper included a description of the principal mines of the district, a notice of the construction a theater and other local news.  The paper probably ran only a few issues, since the silver boom in Potosi was exhausted by October 1860, and Talbott joined the rush to Holcomb Valley.

The short life of the Miner’s Voice included competition with another local handwritten newspaper, the Potosi Nix Cum Rouscht, edited by Capt. J.E. Stevens, president of the Colorado Mining Company and founder of Potosi.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Robert F. Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West:  A Pictorial History of Journalism and Printing on the Frontier (New York:  Bonanza Books, 1969), p. 119; Richard E. Lingenfelter, The Newspapers of Nevada (San Francisco:  John Howell-Books, 1964), 66-67; Richard E. Lingenfelter and Karen R. Gash, The Newspapers of Nevada (Reno:  University of Nevada Press, 1984), pp. 170-171.

Index Sources:  None

Locations:  No issues located, but Feb. 19, 1861 issue (Vol. 1, No. 1) quoted in Los Angeles Star, March 9, 1861.

Alaska Forum (AK, 1900-1906)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Rampart, Alaska (1900-1906)

Frequency:  Weekly

Volume and Issue Data:  Sept. 27, 1900-Aug. 4, 1906

Size and Format:  8 x 10 inches; 2 cols; 4 pages

Editor/Publisher:  W.R. Edwards, editor (1900); J.B. Wingate, editor (1901-1906), manager (1900-1906)

Title Changes and Continuation:  Occasionally cited as the Rampart Forum

General Description & Notes:

According to McLean, Edwards promoted mining stock and Wingate was a mining recorder, mail carrier and miner then they started printing the Alaska Forum.  The partnership lasted only five months, with Edwards leaving to start the rival Rampart Miner six months later (The Miner last only about one year).  By July 1904, however, the local Episcopal Church recalled the iron printing press Wingate leased to publish the Forum, intending to lease to the promoters of a new paper, the Yukon Valley News.  Wingate fought the termination of his lease in court, but failed in his claims.  Wingate, without a press, tried to continue to publish the Forum to hold off his new rival.  Using old copies of his paper as a base, he pasted over the previous week’s news handwritten and typewritten material reproduced on a hectograph machine.  The absence of old copies of the Forum and the difficulties of publishing the manual versions led to a two-month suspension of the paper.  Wingate resumed printing the Forum when he had a new, foot-powered press built.  The shafts and fixtures of the press had been turned on a lathe run by dog-power, leading Wingate to refer to his printing plant as a “five-dog-power press.”

The Forum cost 25 cents and contained advertising, local news, especially stories related to mining, editorials, and occasional attacks on the Episcopal Church, judges (particularly Judge Wickersham, compiler of the Bibliography on Alaskan Literature, who had ruled against Wingate’s bid to keep the Episcopal press) and others Wingate opposed.  The tone of the paper became noticeably more strident after the loss of the printing press.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Dora E. McLean, Early Newspapers on the Upper Yukon Watershed:  1894-1907, unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Alaska, 1963, 44-56; James Wickersham, A Bibliography of Alaska Literature, 1724-1924 (Cordova, AK:  Cordova Daily Times Print, 1927), 251.

Locations:  AlHi-Juneau, AK

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