Union Spy (VA, 1851)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Washington College, Lexington, Virginia

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 3, Friday, June 27, 1851

Size and Format:  7.75 x 12.5 inches; 4 pages, two columns per page

Editor/Publisher:  L. Neal and R. Houston

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

The paper was created and held at Washington & Lee University is misdated in their catalog. The “1857” looks reasonable on the masthead, but the editorial on page two, “The Next Presidency,” says that the presidential campaign “of 1852 is about to commence.” Thus it appears the correct date is 1851, not 1857.

The paper contains story stories, news briefs, editorials, “city and county news,” “foreign,” poetry, “scraps,” and an ad for “job writing.”

Extant copy is very clear and legible–except for the date!

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Rockbridge Historical Society. Guide to the Manuscripts Collection of the Rockbridge Historical Society on Permanent Deposit at the Washington and Lee University Library, Lexington, Virginia. Lexington, Va: The Society, 1989.

Locations:  Rockbridge Historical Society Collection, Special Collections, Leyburn Library, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA

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The True Blue (MX, 1842)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Mexico City, Mexico; Castle Perote Prison, Santiago, Mexico

Frequency:  Weekly (for six weeks)

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 4, April 21, 1842

Size and Format:  Variable; 9 x 13 inches; two columns; written in cursive

Editor/Publisher:  “Simon Pure”

Title Changes and Continuation:  None

General Description and Notes:         

The True Blue was handwritten by Texan soldiers imprisoned in Mexico City.  According to a Texas State archivist, the newspaper was published as a “literary journal” by the 1842 Texan Santa Fe Expedition prisoners while in the Castle Santiago in Mexico City.  The prisoners were later moved to the Castle Perote near the coast.  At least six issues appeared.  The fourth issue, April 21, 1842, announced a “Ball” to be held in celebration of the Battle of San Jacinto, “a day ever to be remembered by Texans.”

The paper’s name appears in large, bold capital letters.

Information Sources:                               

Bibliography:  Bob Karolevitz, “Pen and Ink Newspapers of the Old West,” Frontier Times, 44:2 (Feb.-Mar., 1970), 31, 62; Robert F. Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West:  A Pictorial History of Journalism and Printing on the Frontier (New York:  Bonanza Books, 1969), p. 140; Workers of the Writers’ Program of the Work Projects Administration, Texas:  A Guide to the Lone Star State (New York:  Hastings House, 1940), 121.

Locations:  Vol. 1, Nos. 1 and 6 (original); Vol. 1, Nos. 1, 5 and 6 (photocopy) Texas State Library Archives, Austin, Texas

Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások (HUN, 1836)

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Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások (HUN, 1836)

Publication History:

Place of Publication:  Pest (across the Danube from Buda [comprising modern Budapest]), Hungary

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  At least one extant copy:  December 19, 1836

Size and Format:  Folio, single column

Editor/Publisher:  Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894)

Title Changes and Continuation:  (English: Municipal Government Report) also published Országgyűlési tudósítások or Parlimentary Report

General Description and Notes:

Lajos Kossuth (1802-94), editor of this handwritten newspaper, is one of Hungary’s most famous lawyers, journalists, Protestants, and national heroes, who challenged the Habsburg Empire’s Roman Catholic dynasty and fought for the independence for his country.

Hungarian nationalism, fueled in part by Protestant chaffing under the Habsburg’s Roman Catholic-leaning policies, increased early in the 19th century. Certain reforms were introduced: the replacement of Latin, the official language of administration, with Hungarian; a law allowing serfs alternative means of discharging their feudal duties; and increased Hungarian representation in the Council of State in Vienna. For nationalists, the reforms were too few and too late. The Hungarian Diet rose up to defy the emperor just as a wave of more radical revolutions swept Europe.

Lajos Kossuth ( 1802-94)

Kossuth, raised a Lutheran and studied at a Calvinist university, had served as a reporter on Diet proceedings. A growing readership soon prodded him to publish a gazette (Országgyűlési tudósítások; Parlimentary Report) in direct defiance of the government. The Habsburg government, fearing further spread of popular dissent, banned all printed reports. However, the popularity of Kossuth’s reports led nationalists groups to circulate them in manuscript form. Kossuth organized a group to act like a medieval “scriptorium,” which hand lettered the papers and distributed them clandestinely. Because of his journalistic efforts and  leadership in the nationalist movement, Kossuth was imprisoned by the Habsburgs on Castle Hill for three years (1837-40).

In the 1848 uprising, the Hungarians hastily formed a national defense commission and moved the administrative seat of government from Pest to Debrecen, where Kossuth was elected leader. The parliament declared Hungary’s full independence and rejected the authority of the Habsburgs over the country. The nation’s new freedom was short-lived, however.

The new Habsburg emperor, Franz Joseph (the end of whose reign in 1916 precipitated the First World War), sent in troops with assistance from Russian tsar Nicholas I. The nationalist partisans were defeated by August 1849 and martial law was declared. The Habsburg reprisals were brutal. Most of the nationalist leaders were summarily executed.  Kossuth went into exile in Turkey.

Kossuth is still hailed today by Hungarians as a national liberator. His name is a symbol of independence from foreign domination and was quietly invoked throughout the Soviet era.

(An interesting aside and coincidence: while writing this entry, I learned that Archduke (Crown Prince) Otto von Habsburg, son of the last Austro-Hungarian emperor Charles, died July 4, 2011, at age 98.)

Information Sources:

Bibliography: See hungaria.org. This site includes the following bibliography:

Authentic Life of His Excellency Louis Kossuth, Governor of Hungary: His Progress From His Childhood to His Overthrow by the Combined Armies of Austria and Russia, With a Full Report of the Speeches Delivered in England. . .. London: Bradbury & Evans, 1851. 136 p.
Deák, István. The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848-1849. NY: Columbia U, 1979. 415 p.
De Puy, Henry W. Kossuth and His Generals: With a Brief History of Hungary, Select Speeches of Kossuth, etc. Buffalo: Phinney, 1852. 408 p.
Kossuth and the Hungarian War: Comprising a Complete History of the Late Struggle of the Hungarians For Liberty: . . .. New Haven, CT: Mansfield, 1852. 288 p.
Kossuth, Lajos. Kossuth’s First Speech in Faneuil Hall, Thursday Evening, April 29, 1852. Boston: Dir Old South Work, 1902. 20 p.
Officer of the Army. The Life and Achievements of Gov. Louis Kossuth, and a Complete History of the Late Hungarian War of Independence. NY: Hutchinson, 1852. 56 p.
Spencer, Donald S. Louis Kossuth and Young America: A Study of Sectionalism and Foreign Policy 1848-1852. Columbia: U of MO, 1977.
Whitridge, Arnold. Men in Crisis; the Revolutions of 1848. NY: Scribner’s, 1949. 364 p.

Link: Tőrvényhatósági Tudósítások, Lajos Kossuth (Wikipedia)

Locations:  National Archives, Budapest, Hungary

Tancopanican Chronicle (DE, 1823-1824)

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Publication History: 

Place of Publication: DuPont family home, Delaware

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Saturday, Sept. 20th, 1823.  Twelve issues, 1823-24.

Size and Format:  Approx. 4 pages each; approximately 7.5 x 10 inches

Editor/Publisher:  “Two members of the blue stocking club;” according to Marjorie G. McNinch, of the Hagley Museum and Library Manuscripts and Archives Department,  the paper is “written in the hand of Victorine (du Pont) Bauduy, but compiled with the help of her sisters Eleuthera and Sophie”

Title Changes and Continuation:  Tancopanican Chronicle, 1830-1834; publication for the DuPont Family celebration in 1950.

“Scenes on the Tancopanican” contains humorous watercolor sketches of life in the household of E.I. duPont, 1827 and undated.  It is handwritten, but not a newspaper (photocopy included).

General Description and Notes:

Presumably written in the hand of Victorine (du Pont) Bauduy, but compiled with the help of her sisters Eleuthera and Sophie.  These are the children of the founding member of the DuPont family, French emigrants who came to Delaware in 1800.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Riggs Guide to Manuscripts, The Winterthur Manuscripts, Group 6, Papers of Victorine (du Pont) Bauduy, page 282; Betty-Bright Low and Jacqueline Hinsley, Sophie du Pont; A Young Lady in America.  Sketches, Diaries, & Letters 1823-1833 (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers)

Locations:  Accession 471, Papers of Louis Crowninshield, describes Tancopanican chronicle, 1830-1834, (Wilmington, 1949).  A typescript of the original volumes is in Accession 428.

The Winterthur Manuscripts, Group 9 Papers of Sophie M. duPont, page 530, referring only to “Scenes on the Tancopanican”

Hagley Museum and Library, du Pont papers, Wilmington, DE:  http://www.hagley.org/library/

The Tampa Gouger (FL, 1831)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:   “Our Shop,” “Tampa Bay” (presumably FL; elsewhere in the paper reference is made to [St.?] Petersburg  and Russia, but it may have been an attempt at humor under “Foreign Intelligence”)

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Monday, June 1831, Vol 1., No. 1.

Size and Format:  Large newssheet, 4 pages

Editor/Publisher:  “Three of Us!”  Washington Hood (1808-1840), a surveyor, architect and engineer, possibly in his hand

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes: 

Issue dated “Monday, June 1831”  (Vol. 1, No. 1) carries the motto, “I gouge, Thou gougest, He gouges!”  The paper’s lead column reads:

“In presenting to its patrons the first number of the Gouger, we wish it expressly, distinctly, emphatically, and unequivocally understood that we totally, entirely and absolutely disclaim all allegiances, dependence , fealty, obligation or subservience to any body or bodies civil, military, or political–and that we are not in any sence or meaning, either direct or by inference or by consternation [?] the public’s. [signed] Humble servants, The US Three.

Below the fold, the column continues with an explanation of the publications purpose and character.

“We beg it, moreover, to be expressly understood by all those who may enjoy the high and distinguished privileges of drawing instruction, edification, and happiness from the rich, rare, racy, and diversified columns of the Gouger, that we hold it to be the standard of morals and manners, and the undisputed and indisputable umpire and director of wit, humour, taste, literature and sciences.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations:  The Washington Hood Collection in the Downs Collection, Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera, The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, DE

Swan River Daily Police News (MB, 1876)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Swan River, Manitoba, Canada

Frequency:  Daily? Despite the title, actual duration and frequency are unknown

Volume and Issue Data: April 27, 1876

Size and Format:  Variable; one page; 24 x 36 inches; 22 x 32.5 inches

Editor/Publisher:  North West Mounted Police personnel

Title Changes and Continuation:  See also Weekly Critic, Dufferin, Manitoba

General Description and Notes:

According to Loveridge, the Daily Police News and Dufferin Weekly Critic represented the first efforts at rural journalism at Swan River and Fort Dufferin by North West Mounted Police in 1875 and 1876.  These may have been the earliest Manitoba newspapers outside Winnipeg.  Loveridge calls them “newsletters” and distinguishes them from “true newspapers.”

Information Sources:          

Bibliography:  D.M. Loveridge, A Historical Directory of Manitoba Newspapers, 1859-1978 (Winnipeg:  University of Manitoba Press, 1978), pp. 5, 95

Locations:  Legislative Library, Culture, Heritage and Citizenship, Winnipeg, Manitoba; April 27, 1876:  Saskatchewan Archives, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

The Students Gazette (PA, 1777-1778)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Friends Latin School (later William Penn Charter School), Philadelphia, PA

Frequency:  Unknown; first issue: “The great Want of a Weekly Newspaper and the Encouragement they formerly met with from you has induced me to publish the Students Gazette.”

Volume and Issue Data:  23 issues, 1777-8; first issue: June 11, 1777

Size and Format:  Half sheet (roughly 4.25  x 6 inches)

Editor/Publisher:  S.M. Fox, Friends Latin School, Philadelphia, PA (the editor’s name is on page two at the conclusion of the introductory editorial and in a news brief about school elections on page four)

Title Changes and Continuation: Unknown

General Description and Notes:

Full title:  The Students Gazette Containing Advices both Foreign & Domestic; First issue, Wednesday, June 11, 1777.

Harwood claims that this was “America’s first student newspaper, published at Friends Latin School,  Philadelphia, Pa., in 1777” (p. 326).

Information Sources:

Bibliography: William N. Harwood, Writing and Editing School News (Caldwell, ID: Clark Publishing Co,  1977), pp 326-327.

Locations:  The Morley Collection, Manuscripts, The Quaker Collection, Haverford College, Haverford, PA

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