The Victoria Times (NZ, 1841)

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Victoria Times (NZ, 1841)

Victoria Times (NZ, 1841)

Publication History:

Place of Publication: Wellington, NZ

Frequency: Library reports only one issue, but 500 copies (lithographed)

Volume and Issue Data:  Extant copy says “No. 1, September 8, 1841” (NZ library site says “15 September 1841”)

Size and Format: Size (unknown), but handwritten text was lithographed

Editor/Publisher:  Thomas Bluett and Jacob Jones

Title Changes and Continuation:  None (possibly related the New Zealand Gazette)

General Description and Notes:

According to the National Library of New Zealand website, “The Victoria Times was only published once but is noteworthy for several reasons; it was Wellington’s second earliest paper, it was lithographed rather than letter-pressed and it contains a plan of Wellington on the back page. The plan was hand-coloured in some issues although not the one presented here.

The Victoria Times was published by Thomas Bluett and Jacob Jones. They had previously produced lithographs for the New Zealand Company, including a chart of Port Nicholson that’s now recognized as New Zealand’s first lithograph. Given that the Company had a strong interest in Wellington’s other newspaper, the New Zealand Gazette, the decision to publish a rival paper seems reckless. And is presumably one of the reasons why the paper failed to appear again. Another possible reason for the paper’s brief life was that the partnership of Bluett and Jones did not endure. Jones announced its dissolution in the Gazette in late 1841.

“Bluett moved to Tasmania. Records show him operating a lithographic firm in Hobart in 1842. Examples of his work are held in various archives in Australia. He died in England in 1846.”

According to the Library Tech NZ site, “Many of you will know that five hundred copies of the first issue of the Victoria Times were published in Wellington on 15 September 1841. These were lithographed, rather than letter-pressed like most newspapers.

“The first three pages are handwritten text, and the last is a fascinating plan of Wellington in 1841. Note that Lambton Quay is actually a quay (i.e. constructed along the edge of a body of water) and that Basin Reserve is a “proposed basin” linked to the water by a “proposed canal”. In some issues (but not ours) the map was hand-coloured. This was not an economical way to run a newspaper, apparently, as the first issue was also the last.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  None

Locations: National Library of New Zealand (see Papers Past: Victoria Times)

Vermont Autograph and Remarker (VT, 1871)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Starksborough,Vermont

Frequency: Unknown

Volume and Issue Data: November 6, 1871

Size and Format:  about 7′ x 4 l/2″

Editor/Publisher:  James Johns

Title Changes and Continuation:  According to the front page story in the Vermont Autograph and Remarker, the editor also wrote the Huntington Gazette when he was 13 years old (March 1810).  He altered the title of this paper “as fancy dictated.”

General Description and Notes:

The paper is very neatly written in scripted print.  On the first page James Johns writes:

“It cannot well escape the notice of an observing eye that the Autograph is, as the title indicates, a manuscript production, being executed with a pen by hand.  consequently it may well be supposed what is the fact, that such a mode of issue does not admit of multiplying copies like the press and types, one at a time being all that I undertake to get out at once.  This I am generally able to accomplish in little more than half a day with close application.  The matter is all written down on the columns directly from the dictates of my mind.  The papers’ so issued I mostly send off by mail to either publishers.”

According to the editor of the Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society, Vol. IV, No. 2 (New Series), 1936, pp 69-70, the editor of the Autograph, James John was born in Huntington, VT, September 26, 1797.

“As early as 1834, he pen-printed a newspaper, the Vermont Autograph and Remarker; each issue included five or six articles, totaling about fifteen hundred words–every letter printed by hand.  He continued the Autograph until three months before his death [1867, age 76].  His pen-printed material consists of historical items, essays, fiction, poems, and political statistics.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Robert W. G. Vail, “Bibliography of the Writings of James Johns,” Monograph on James Johns [The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America,  Vol. 27, Part 2, 1933]; cited in Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society, 1936, “James Johns, Vermont Pen Printer,” Vol. IV, No. 2, pages 69-71

Locations: Vermont Historical Society Library, Montpelier, VT;  Newspapers and Periodicals, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA

The Vepricula (UT, 1864-1865)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: St. George, Utah

Frequency:  Semi-monthly; twice a month over a period of 13 months

Volume and Issue Data: May 1864-June 1865

Size and Format:  3 columns, foolscap pages, four pages

Editor/Publisher:  Orson Pratt, Jr., George A. Bergen, Charles Lowell (C.L.) Walker, and Joseph Orton: all wrote under pen names (from Carter, p. 144)

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

According to Carter, The Vepricula or Little Bramble was issued twice a month over 13 months from May 1864 to June 1865. The four editors wrote under pen-names and each followed their own line of thought.  Pratt was Veritas, Bergen was Signor, Orton was Cerus, and Walker was Mark Whiz.  While these men planned the paper and developed their stories, they “hired some young women who were good  penmen, to write the paper, the script was so fine and yet so perfect that it is still very readable, except where time has dimmed the ink” (Carter, p. 144).

Content was organized under sections with heads such as “Readings,” “Hopes,” “Reflections,” “Reason and Faith,” “The Will,” etc.c

According to the Huntington Library, The Vepricula was the first manuscript newspaper published in St. George, Utah.

Facsimile copy at the Huntington, FAC 526.

According to Chad Flake (p.21) “Guglielma Gustaro Rossetti Sangioranni was an L.D.S. convert from . . .  He was also associated with Joseph Orton, George A. Bergen, and Orson Pratt in the publishing of the manuscript newspaper, the Veprecula, [sic] where he wrote under the pseudonym, “Ego.”  (cited in Andrew K. Larsen I Was Called to Dixie (SLC: Deseret New Press, 1961, p.422)

Cited in Checklist of Utah Newspapers in Holley, p.163, as Little Bramble, St. George, Washington County, 5/1864-6/15/1865; Editors: J. Orton, O. Pratt, Jr., G.A. Bergen, and C.L. Walker.

Related titles: Veprecula [sic], frequency: bi-weekly

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Kate B. Carter, ed.,  Journalism in Pioneer Days ( Salt Lake City:  Daughters of Utah Pioneers Historical Society, April 1943), pp. 139-168 (esp. 144-46); Andrew K. Larsen I Was Called to Dixie (Salt Lake City: Deseret New Press, 1961), p.422

Chad Flake, “Early Utah Journalism:  A Brief Summary,” in Utah’s Newspapers–Traces of Her Past, ed. by Robert P. Holley, Utah Newspaper Project, SLC–Marriott Library, 1984. p.21

Locations:  Facsimile, Manuscripts Division, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA

The Union Times (UT,1886-1887)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Union, Utah

Frequency:  Unknown

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 5, No. 5 is dated Dec. 12, 1886 (p. 2); other dates include Feb. 20, 1887, Feb. 15, 1887, and Feb. 9, 1887.

Size and Format: 6.5 x 10.5 inches; single column

Editor/Publisher:  Unknown

Title Changes and Continuation:  Unknown

General Description and Notes:

The paper is a Mormon publication. The lead story-editorial of Vol. 5, No. 5 begins with the question, “What are We Mormons a doing at the Present?” The answer:

“We are endeavoring to Keep the commandments of God as written in his holy word. To preach the Gospel to all the world, to inspire the hearts of Men with faith in nGod our Father, And in the atonement of Jesus and that wickedness may comme to an end . . . .”

Seems to be continuous entries with different dates, contributors names/letter signed (F.S., D.D.E. Jones, Orson Berrett, Fred Buxton, Henry C. Monteer). May have been a Young Men’s Improvement Society publication, but found no indication of that in the extant copies.

Information Sources:

Bibliography: None

Locations:  Manuscripts, MS 605, University Libraries, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

The True Templar (NS, 1866)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication:  East Branch (?) and/or later Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Frequency: “Published Semi-Monthly” (Vol. 1, No. 2)

Volume and Issue Data:  Vol. 1, No. 2, Wednesday, March 14, 1866

Size and Format:  11.5 x 17 (?)

Editor/Publisher: John James Stewart

Title Changes and Continuation:  Editor went on to become the founding editor of the province’s major paper, The Chronicle-Herald

General Description and Notes:

According to Dalhousie University’s Archives and Special Collections J.J. Stewart Maritime Collection website’s introduction of the collection,

“When he was 35, John James Stewart (1844-1907) decided to leave his Halifax law firm and become the editor of a fledgling provincial daily newspaper. His family greeted the news with skepticism and concern. J.J. Stewart had already left a good teaching position and the principalship of the Amherst Academy in order to become a lawyer. To give up law after only four years seemed such a waste. J.J. Stewart quickly proved that his decision was a good one. Within five years he had shrewdly developed his Morning Herald into the province’s most successful newspaper.

“In retrospect, J.J. Stewart’s decision to become a newspaper editor should not have been a total surprise. When he was 22, J.J. Stewart had edited and put out his own handwritten temperance newspaper, The True Templar [emphasis added]. He also had a deep respect for the power of the printed word; indeed, he viewed it “as the most powerful of all human forces …” A man of strong political, social, and religious convictions, Stewart held definite opinions and possessed the writing skills required to present them effectively. The editorial page of a newspaper would and did provide J.J. Stewart with an ideal outlet.

“When it was clear that his newspaper was on a solid footing, Stewart branched out into the banking business. He rose to the presidency of both the Acadia Loan Corporation and the People’s Bank of Halifax. A strong Conservative, Stewart also devoted many hours to party affairs and made two unsuccessful bids for election to the provincial assembly.

“In addition to his newspaper and banking work, J.J. Stewart took an active part in the social, religious, and intellectual life of Halifax. Although a member of the Masons, the Navy League, the Good Templars, and the YMCA, Stewart’s primary commitments were to the North British Society and the Nova Scotia Historical Society. It was to the latter organization that he presented his landmark paper on early journalism in Nova Scotia. His carefully researched and well-written paper is still the authoritative source for information about the beginnings of the newspaper industry in Nova Scotia and Canada. J.J. Stewart clearly had a talent for historical writing.

“Away from the public eye, Stewart conducted a lifelong study of the history of Nova Scotia. No aspect of Nova Scotia’s past was neglected. Even material about major events which had impacted on Nova Scotia was carefully acquired and studied. The American revolution, the roots of Canadian federalism, works of major British authors, agricultural chemistry, and the depression in the West Indies were just a few of the related topics investigated by J.J. Stewart.

“Unlike the other major Nova Scotia bibliophile of the period, T.B. Akins, J.J. Stewart did not concentrate on book-length works. Half of his collection of over 3,000 works is in pamphlet form and many are what would have been considered ephemeral even in his era. Due to his interest in Nova Scotia’s printing history and in all aspects of Nova Scotia life, he collected everything from church bulletins of special services to the annual reports of the Micmac Missionary Society. He was especially diligent in collecting early newspapers, magazines, and almanacs, materials which provide valuable insight into all aspects of nineteenth century provincial life.

“In mid-February of 1907, J.J. Stewart was badly burned by flames from an overturned oil stove in his home. Two weeks later, Nova Scotia lost one of its most capable newspapermen and devoted boosters. Following the settlement of his estate, his widow presented his impressive historical library to Dalhousie University. Although his untimely death silenced his pen, J.J. Stewart has provided the resources for future researchers to study and write about the history of Nova Scotia.”

According to Karen Smith of the Dalhousie University Libraries (in correspondence with the HN editor), “It obviously existed in at least two issues since we have a Vol. 1, no. [sic] 2 issue.  It is in very fragile condition so I could not copy the whole issue for you.” She goes on to note that

“John James Stewart was just 21 years old in March 1866. He grew up in a very small rural Nova Scotia community, but quickly demonstrated a scholarly aptitude and went on to become a lawyer, businessman, and the founding editor of what is still our major provincial paper, The Chronicle-Herald. He also was a very knowledgeable book collector and his excellent collection was donated to Dalhousie University upon his untimely death in 1907. In early life, J.J. Stewart was obviously a temperance man.”

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Stewart, J. J. “Early journalism in Nova Scotia,” in Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, 1888, Vol. 6, pp. 91 – 122

Link: Dalhousie University’s Archives and Special Collections J.J. Stewart Maritime Collection website

Locations:  Special Collections, Killam Memorial Library, Dalhousie University Libraries, Halifax, Nova Scotia

The Times. (NC, 1867-1869)

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Publication History:

Place of Publication: Harrington, North Carolina

Frequency:  Weekly (irregular)

Volume and Issue Data:  Oct. 17, 24, 31, 1867 to April 2, 1869

1868, Jan-June complete; July 3, 17, 24, 31; Aug. 21, 28; Sept. 18, 25; Oct. 9, 16; Nov. Complete; Dec. 25.

1869, Jan. 1, 8, 22; Feb. 5, 19, 26; Mar. 12, 19, 26.

Size and Format:  “The Times.” was published on a good heavy quality of bond paper measuring 12½ by 15½ inches.  It was four pages, two columns to the page.

Editor/Publisher:  John McLean Harrington

Title Changes and Continuation:  One of series of papers published by Harrington, including as The NationThe Weekly News, Weekly Eagle, The Semi-Weekly News, and The Young American  (Harrington), (1860-63).

General Description and Notes:

According to Michael Ray Smith, in his book A Free Press in Freehand, “The Times. was used to mildly criticize Harrington’s newly united country for too much government while also praising it as the best of all nations” (p. 9).

“In his inaugural issue of The Times., Thursday, October 17, 1867, Harrington told readers that he wrote to entertain and inform others and to entertain himself” (p. 92). “. . . Our paper is intended for a repository of Pure Literature, Poetry, , writes Smith.

“He [Harrington] used the symbol [of Freemasonry] to promote a Pine Forest lodge meeting on page three of The Times., November 7, 1867. The most elaborate visual element occurred on the front page of The Times. on Friday, February 19, 1869. Harrington placed art of the North Carolina State House on the top of that page” (p. 46).

It seems that the gap of time between publication of the two papers is owed in part to a paper shortage.

Information Sources:

Bibliography:  Michael Ray Smith, A Free Press in Freehand (Grand Rapids, MI: Edenridge Press, 2011), pp. 2, 8, 9, 42, 78, 84, 85, 92, 102; Malcolm Fowler, They Passed This Way: A Personal Narrative of Harnett County History (Lillington, NC: Harnett County Centennial, 1955), see Chapter XVII, “Authors, Poets and Papers”, pp. 150-52

More bibliography included in The Weekly News

Locations:  Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham, NC

The Sitka Times (AK, 1868)

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Publication History

Place of Publication:  Sitka, Alaska Territory

Frequency:  Weekly (irregular)

Volume and Issue Data: Sept. 19, 1868, 1:1; Oct. 19, 1868, 1:6; Oct. 31, 1868, 1:7; Nov. 7, 1868, 1:8

Size and Format:  8 x 12 in.; two cols.; four pages; cursive pen and ink.

Editor/Publisher:  Thomas G. Murphy, aka “Barney O. Ragan” or “Regan”

Title Changes and Continuations:  The Sitka Times (Sept. 19, 1868-Nov. 7, 1868) continued as Alaska Times (printed), 1869-1870.

General Description and Notes:

Editor Murphy (“Regan”) claimed The Sitka Times was “the first paper published in Alaska.”  The “introductory” column on page two outlines the editor’s intention to publish local news and to promote the general economic development of the region:

“To day we present the Sitka Times to the citizens of  Sitka and the world at large.  It is the first attempt ever made to publish a paper in this vast land of Alaska.  The Times will be devoted to local and general news.  We shall, when we deem it practicable, discuss all question of public interest, touching the affairs about Alaska.  In Politics and Religion the Times will be neutral.  The Pacific Rail Road we are in favor of and would love to hear the scream of its whistle echoed from the peaks of Alaska, and the musical strain of humanity shouting a chorus of  ‘Let the iron horse speed along with its precious burden of emigration.’  We are strongly in favor of a civil government and strictly opposed to military rule.  Give Alaska a civil government, you may soon expect to hear of rich minerals having been fully developed by our latent industry, but not before.

“Having no ‘devil’ in our office the ‘Times‘ should be virtuous.

“As our local items will be few we shall spare no pains in giving a well defined description of all fights; recording in language of flowers the matrimonial pursuits of mankind; with the respectful details of those, whose souls have fled to the ‘spirit land'” (1:1, p. 2, cols. 1  and 2a).

The editor explained and defended the handwritten format of his paper in the first “Editorial:”

“The appearance of the ‘Times‘ being written instead of printed will perhaps cause many a laugh.  In olden times a laugh would be out of place, as written pamphlets and the town crier were the means alone employed of conveying news, as no [?] parties at that time had been established by the fair.

“To invest in the purchase of a press would incur great expense and until we see better inducements than are now offered, a press can be dispensed with, although the copying of even so small a sheet, as this is, requires much labor and some means.

“Our budget in producing such a paper is not with the view of making a fortune, but chiefly if possible to gratify the citizens of our Town and for this we shall do our best” (1:1, p. 2, col. 2)

The paper’s script is relatively large and the cursive hand is quite legible.  The front page of the first number includes a large, bold name and masthead and the rest is advertisements for Sitka businesses.  Page two is the editor’s introductory comments and the editorial.  Page three covers seven local news stories including ship arrivals and departures.  The fourth and last page is even divided between local news and advertisements.

According to Hinckley, Murphy was known by contemporaries as a “politician, lawyer, priest, editor, printer, author and poet.”  He organized early efforts to establish a civil government for the territory and was elected by a small but apparently unrepresentative group to head the new government.  Within three days a second vote removed Murphy from office.  He later became the city attorney.

Murphy eventually imported a printing press, but had insufficient money to print his newspaper.  The Sitka mayor invested the necessary funds and, on April 23, 1869, Murphy edited the first printed issue of the (retitled) Alaska Times.

Information Sources

Bibliography:  Ted C. Hinckley, The Americanization of Alaska, 1867-1897 (Palo Alto, Calif.:  Pacific Books, Publishers, 1972), 39-46; Nichols, “History of Alaska Under Rule of  the United States,” (1924), 426; James Wickersham, A Bibliography of Alaska Literature, 1724-1924 (Cordova, Ak.:  Cordova Daily Times Print, 1927), 253-254.

Locations:  Cu-B; DLC (photocopy, 1:1 only); Territorial Library-Juneau.

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